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Standards-based application integration for business-to-business communications
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fierce competitions and pursuits of excellence require all applications, internal or external, to be integrated for business-to-business communications. Standards play an important role in fulfilling the requirement. This dissertation focuses on Business-to-Business standards or XML-based frameworks for Internet commerce

First, we analyze what the standards are and how they interact. Fifteen influential standards are selected: eCo Framework, ebXML, UBL, UDDI, SOAP, WSDL, RosettaNet, Open Applications Group, VoiceXML, cXML, Wf-XML, OFX, ICE, RDF, and OWL. Basically each standard has to provide transport mechanisms and message structures for general and/or specific applications. In terms of message structure definition, they can be classified as two types: syntax-based, for defining messages syntactically and semantics-based, like RDF and OWL for defining messages semantically.

Second, for transiting from syntax to semantics, we provide a reuse-based method to develop the ontology by reusing existing XML-based standards. This is a kind of knowledge reuse, for instance, using previously developed structures, naming conventions and relationships between concepts.

Third, we exploit how to use these standards. We propose an approach that combines RDF and OWL with SOAP for building semantic Web services. Three levels of combinations are provided: Simple Reference, Direct Embedment, and Semantic SOAP.

Fourth, we design an infrastructure aimed at creating a formal channel by using Web services and semantic Web for establishing buyer awareness, i.e., buyers first become aware of products/promotions offered by sellers. We propose the concept of personal ontology, emphasizing that ontology is not only a common and shared conceptualization but also can be used to specify personal views of the products by sellers and buyers. The agreements between buyers and sellers can be described in XML schema or ontology in OWL. A semantic matchmaking algorithm is designed and implemented considering synonym, polysemy and partial matching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2005. , 97 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 986
Keyword [en]
Internetprogramming, Electronic ceommerce
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33071Local ID: 19039ISBN: 91-85457-66-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-33071DiVA: diva2:253894
Public defence
2005-11-25, Visionen, hus B, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-11-22
List of papers
1. XML-based frameworks for internet commerce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>XML-based frameworks for internet commerce
2001 (English)In: Enterprise Information Systems II / [ed] B. Sharp, Joaquim Filipe, José Cordeiro, 2001, 197-202 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

XML-based frameworks or industry standards for Internet Commerce are rapidly launched and changed. The contribution of this paper is to increase the understanding and facilitate comparison and evaluation of the most commonly referred frameworks. The paper provides a survey of the architecture and message definition of BizTalk, cXML, eCo Framework, ICE (Information and Content Exchange), IOTP (Internet Open Trading Protocol), OAG (Open Applications Group), RosettaNet, xCBL, ebXML and ontology.org. The relationships between these frameworks are cooperative and competitive and thus the merger and change are unavoidable. At present eCo Framework and xCBL are tightly cooperative and supported by others. The competing initiative is centered around Microsoft's BizTalk, supported by cXML and OAG. The future will probably see closer cooperation to make formats compatible. Microsoft is both promoting BizTalk and is a member of eCo Framework.

Keyword
XML, Framework, Industry Standard, E-Commerce, Internet Commerce
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85537 (URN)0-7923-7177-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), Stafford, the Uk, Jul 5-7, 2000
Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-22 Last updated: 2012-11-22
2. Potential advantages of semantic web for internet commerce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential advantages of semantic web for internet commerce
2003 (English)In: Fifth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. Proceedings, 2003, 151-158 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Past decade saw much hype in the area of information technology. The emerging of semantic Web makes us ask if it is another hype. This paper focuses on its potential application in Internet commerce and intends to answer the question to some degree. The contributions are: first, we find and examine twelve potential advantages of applying semantic Web for Internet commerce; second, we conduct a case study of e-procurement in order to show its advantages for each process of e-procurement; lastly, we identify critical research issues that may transfer the potential advantages into tangible benefits.

Keyword
Semantic Web, Internet commerce, Application
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60458 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), Angers, France, Apr 23-26, 2003
Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2012-11-22
3. Develop the ontology for internet commerce by reusing existing standards
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Develop the ontology for internet commerce by reusing existing standards
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Semantic Web Foundations and Applications Technologies (SWFAT), 2003, 51-57 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper attempts to present an approach to develop the ontology for Internet commerce by reusing the vocabulary from the existing standards, industry initiatives or XML-based frameworks. The approach allows ontology developers to share the common vocabulary and build it from a solid foundation. The paper includes two main contributions: 1. an approach to develop the ontology for the domain of Internet commerce; 2. the guidelines about what vocabulary can be reused from the existing standards.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61613 (URN)
Conference
International Workshop on Semantic Web Foundations and Application Technologies (SWFAT), Nara, Japan, March 12, 2003
Available from: 2010-11-17 Created: 2010-11-17 Last updated: 2012-11-22
4. A reuse-based method of developing the ontology for e-procurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A reuse-based method of developing the ontology for e-procurement
2003 (English)In: Proc Second Nordic Conference on Web Services (NCWS'2003), 2003, 101-112 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a reuse-based method for ontology development by exploiting the similarities in the structures of XML documents and ontology. We apply the method to write the ontology for e-procurement with OWL, which spans the trading cycle: Order, OrderResponse, OrderCancellation, DispatchAdvice, ReceiptAdvice and Invoice. The paper consists of four contributions: 1. An analysis of the ontology types for Internet commerce; 2. An illustration of how to reuse existing XML-based standards including reuses of architecture, XML Schema and other standards; 3. A tool presented to validate if an instance is consistent with the ontology; 4. Three issues are discussed: applicability of the method, the hardest things by our experiences and tools needed to support the method. Meanwhile, this research also shows previous investments on XML in industry are very useful for the corresponding ontology development.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62129 (URN)91-7636-392-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd Nordic Conference on Web Services (NCWS), Växsjö, Sweden, Nov 20-21, 2003
Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2012-11-22
5. Combining RDF and OWL with SOAP for semantic web services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining RDF and OWL with SOAP for semantic web services
2004 (English)In: Third Nordic Conference on Web Services NCWS, 2004, 2004, 31-45 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper has two contributions: (1) we attempt to propose that a combination of RDF and OWL with SOAP is useful for building semantic Web services (SWS); (2) we show how to combine them technically. A SOAP Envelope comprises Header (control data) and Body (transaction data). They are defined in XML schema syntactically not semantically, resulting in inflexibility for Web services invocation. RDF and OWL introduce ontology-based semantics into SOAP. We provide new SWS: three-level combinations plus a base level for easy comparison. SWS at Level 0 (Internal Translation) can process multiple data formats by internally translating one format in SOAP into others. SWS at Level 1 (Simple Reference) use pointing a link-with an OWL individual in SOAP and allow service receiver(s) to decide whether or not to process it. They are useful for such business use cases as product/ service introduction and promotion. SWS at Level 2 (Direct Embedment) embed an OWL individual in SOAP Envelope and define the types of messages in WSDL by using OWL classes instead of XML Schema. They are useful to add semantics gradually into current Web service infrastructure. SWS at Level 3 (Semantic SOAP) relax nearly all constraints in WSDL to receive/ send, understand, and process semantic SOAP, encoded in a general ontology. They are useful for casual integration and for agents that have never communicated before.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23087 (URN)2479 (Local ID)2479 (Archive number)2479 (OAI)
Conference
3rd Nordic Conference on Webservices (NCWS), Växsjö, Sweden, Nov 22-23
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2012-11-22
6. An infrastructure for establishing buyer awareness by using Web services and semantic Web
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An infrastructure for establishing buyer awareness by using Web services and semantic Web
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Establishing buyer awareness contains two major business processes: (1) sellers advertise their products and (2) buyers become aware of them or first learn of them. On the Internet, e-mail is the major means by using messaging for realizing buyer awareness, but critical challenges are ahead from the perspectives of legitimacy and efficiency. This paper provides an infrastructure for establishing buyer awareness, called SAMI (Specification, Agreement, and Matchmaking Infrastructure), enabling all  sellers' advertisements to formally reach potential buyers instead of being unread. Under the SAMI, sellers and buyers need to adjust to each other: (1) buyers should launch their Web services to recieve sellers' advertisements and install their own agents to process all of them and (2) sellers should specify their products simply but with rich semantics that the agents can process instead of using natural language which is relatively hard to process. Three contributions are included. First, the concept of personal ontology is defined for sellers and buyers to add rich semantics into their keywords for semantic matchmaking. Second, an ontology as well as an  XML Schema is designed for encoding messages for simplifying for agreement of messaging. Third, an algorithm is provided to match buyers' keywords (requirements) with sellers' keywords (advertisments) with regard to synonym, polysemy and partial matching. In particular all keywords can be any classes or instances from different ontologies. A prototype system has been implemented and tested

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85538 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-22 Last updated: 2012-11-22

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