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The cognitive use of artifacts in cooperative process management: Rescue management and underground line control
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Work performed in various types of centers of coordination is highly dynamic and requires that a team continuously take actions and make multiple decisions in real time. This type of Work is here refered to as cooperative process management. Through empirical studies, carried out in an underground line control room and in rescue management, this thesis analyzes how the various cognitive artifacts are used by the operator teams in order to match the particular nature of the tasks undertaken. The cognitive artifacts considered range from specially designed wall-mounted electronic boards and computer databases all the way to paper maps, refrigerator magnets, and Post-it notes. Of specialinterest is the local designs, redesigns, and customizations undertaken by the teams in order to create and maintain a mutually shared understanding of the situation at hand. Tiris thesis also examines thecognitive artifacts as coordination and conununication tools.

The findings are presented in four articles. The first article focuses on the role of the public artifacts in rescue management, i.e. artifacts which are immediately available to the whole team at the same time and place. Special focus is placed on the role these artifacts play for the creation of common conceptual ground. In the second article, the organization of an underground line control room is analyzed, showing how the same cognitive artifacts play significantly different roles dUring the day andnight shift. The third article describes how cognitive artifacts, which are customized by rescue management teams, structure their work in ways which make the tasks less cognitively demanding. Finally, the fourth article goes through an unusual incident which occurred during underground line operations, in which the team lost its situation awareness. This was due to the difficulty of integrating information which was distributed over several cognitive artifacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2002. , 114 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 258
Keyword [en]
Cognitive artifacts, distributed cognition, cooperative process management, cognitive ethnography, centers of coordination, customization, cognitive system, computer supported cooperative work, ecology of cognitive artifacts
Keyword [sv]
Kognitiva processer
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33962Local ID: 20120ISBN: 91-7373-384-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-33962DiVA: diva2:254810
Public defence
2002-09-20, Sal Key 1, Hus Key, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2014-08-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Team Coordination and communication in a rescue command staff: the role of public representations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Team Coordination and communication in a rescue command staff: the role of public representations
1999 (English)In: Travail humain (Paris), ISSN 0041-1868, E-ISSN 2104-3663, Vol. 62, no 3, 273-291 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [fr]

Dans ce document, nous présentons une étude réalisée sur une session deformation d'un personnel d'encadrement au commandement, dispensée dans un centre national suédois deformation au sauvetage. Compte tenu de la nature du probléme, l'unite à étudier comprend à la fois Us participants et les artefacts utilisés. Pour cette raison, nous choisissons comme objectif theorique sous-jacent la structure de cognition distributé. Selon cette structure, les personnes de même que les différents artéfacts cognitifs qu'elles utilisent, constituent un systéme cognitif. Au sein de ce systéme, les informations sont transmises aussi bien entre les personnes qu'entre les artefacts et les personnes. Ici, nous nous concentrons sur l'utilisation des artéfacts cognitifs publics. Notre méthode est, pour une part, ethnographique (quant au type d'analyse de la situation de formation), et, pour une outre part, fondée sur Vanalyse du discours (à partir d'enregistrements au caméscope). Nous présentons deux événements survenus durant une session deformation, retenus à cause du rôle de deux artéfacts publics différents dans des activites de briefing. Dans une telle activité, une personne résume la situation actuelle devant le responsable de secours. Le probléme abordé dans notre étude renvoie à la création conjointe d'un modéle de situation. Notre intérêt pone sur la maniére dont les modéles individuals de situation ont été diffusés et négociés parmi les membres du service de secours au moyen de communications a propos et par l'intermédiaire des artéfacts cognitifs. Les analyses font apparaître que tous(les participants, etpas seulement ceux directement impliqués dans le briefing, ont utilisé les artéfacts cognitifs publics pour actualiser leurs propres modéles de situation, de même que pour négocier un modéle partagé de situation. Dans le premier cas, l'artéfact consiste en une liste d'evénements géreé et actualisée manuellement par une personne. II a été constaté que la communication à propos de cette liste, non seulement a servi de rappel individuel et de contrôle individuel pour la personne qui informe et pour le responsable de secours, mais qu 'elle a également servi à la distribution de ces informations aupres d'autres participants et à leur actualisation d'autres artéfacts. Dans le second cas, la tâche a consisté à trouver un emplacement géographique. Il a été constaté que la faiblesse des artéfacts (cartes) a conduit à une discussion compliquee au sujet d'un modéle partagé de situation. En conclusion, un artéfact cognitif public ne peut pas en soi être considéré comme source d'informations. Au contraire, I'utilisation d'un artéfact public est intégrée à la communication entre les membres de l'équipe et cette intégration semble constituer un élément déterminant dans le développement d'un moéle partagé de situation

Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a study conducted on a staff command training session at a Swedish national rescue training centre. We used the distributed cognition framework according to which people as well as the artefacts they use constitute a cognitive system. Our interest is directed towards the way in which individual situation models were spread and negotiated by means of communication around the artefacts. The conclusion is that a public artefact seems to be a crucial determinant in the development of a shared situation model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Presses Universitaires de France, 1999
Keyword
Communication, Coordination, Répartition des connaissances, Représentations publiques, Prise de décision dynamique
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32252 (URN)18132 (Local ID)18132 (Archive number)18132 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Exploring the Openness of Cognitive Artifacts in Cooperative Process Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Openness of Cognitive Artifacts in Cooperative Process Management
2002 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 4, no 1, 9-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a field study at a Stockholm underground control room, with particular focus on the different interactional affordances of the artifacts, used by the operators. The analysis is based on the notion that the design of cognitive artifacts affords different degrees of openness, i.e. to what extent they render the interaction of a task performer with the artifact open to others in the vicinity. A comparison between the dayshift and nightshift demonstrates how the various levels of openness are manifested during work. Some tentative design comments are made with regard to computer support systems for the underground line control.

Keyword
Cognitive artifacts, Cooperative process management, Ecology of artifacts, Openness of artifacts
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79039 (URN)10.1007/s101110200001 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-06-28 Created: 2012-06-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. The Collaborative Production and Use of Cognitive Artifacts in Rescue Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Collaborative Production and Use of Cognitive Artifacts in Rescue Management
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present study investigates how the various cognitive artifacts used in three rescue management settings are integrated into the activity and in what ways they structure it. Apartfrom aoalyzing the ways in which the artifacts structure the tasks aod goals of tbe activity, thisarticle also argues that the artifacts produced by the operators themselves function as mediators oftbe overall uoderstaoding of the situation dealt with. The aoalysis focuses particularly on tbeteams' design and redesign of the artifacts used, and on how this ongoing process mediates thecommon problem space. It is argued that the collaboratively constructed and customized artifactsdefine the functional requirements of the task in such a way as to support the formation of acommonly shared situation awareness, something that is essential for emergency and rescuemanagement work.

Keyword
Customized representations, collaborative production of artifacts, structure of the activity, mediating artifacts, cognitive economy
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79041 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-28 Created: 2012-06-28 Last updated: 2012-06-28Bibliographically approved
4. Losing and Reconstructing The Bubble in an Underground Line Control Room
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Losing and Reconstructing The Bubble in an Underground Line Control Room
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Having the hubble is an expression which indicates that operators involved incooperative process management have constructed a cognitive understanding of the operationalstatus of the process they are in control of as weil as of the control systems they use. Based on afield study of an underground line control room in Stockholm, this article tries to show how thehubble is an ongoing process which requires the continuous integration of information which isdistributed in various cognitive artifacts in the control room. The bubble, which is a highlydynamic process, can occasionally be lost and thereby require that the operator team activelyreconstructs it. In this process the various cognitive artifacts used often play a central role for theintegration of the otherwise distributed information.

Keyword
Having the hubble, cooperative process management, cognitive artifacts, grounding of communication, distributed knowledge
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79043 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-28 Created: 2012-06-28 Last updated: 2012-06-28Bibliographically approved

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Garbis, Christer

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