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Century Perspective of Heavy Metal Use in Urban Areas.: A Case Study in Stockholm
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2001 (English)In: Water, air, & soil pollution. Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 197-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inflow and stock (amount in use) of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr),copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn)) in goods in 1995 have been quantifiedin the anthroposphere of Stockholm, Sweden. Statistics on national, regional and local levelwere used. Contacts were established with representatives from production and construction in theindustrial sector and with authorities. The results show that the stock of Cd is 0,2 kg per capita. Forthe other heavy metals the corresponding result per capita is: Cr 8, Cu 170, Hg 0,01, Ni 4, Pb 73and Zn 40 kg. The inflow varies between 2–8% of the stock indicating the importance of the stock.The lowest levels are for Cu and Pb. Heavy metal levels in solid waste are high, between 15–45%of the amount in the inflow (Hg excluded), the lowest values were for Cu and Pb. Thus, recycling isincomplete. Long life expectancy goods form the majority of the stock but there is a tendency thatshort life expectancy goods increase their importance in the inflow. Concealed goods are also morefrequent in inflow than in the stock.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Vol. 1, no 3-4, 197-211 p.
Keyword [en]
anthroposphere, goods, heavy metals, inflow, stock, substance flow analysis, urban, waste
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33999DOI: 10.1023/A:1017564407076Local ID: 20279OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-33999DiVA: diva2:254847
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-06-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Levels of heavy metals in different media are high today, both in Stockholm and other urban areas. Where do the metals come from? Production emissions and point sources are not the answer, since earlier research has shown that production emissions are lower than emission from goods during use (the diffuse emission). Hence, in order to understand the flow of different metals to different recipients it is necessary to understand the use of heavy metals in goods. This thesis quantifies the use of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in goods in Stockholm, Sweden. It also quantifies the diffuse emission from the goods.

The results of this thesis show that the stock of heavy metals in goods in Stockholm is large. Per capita, it has been estimated to about:170 kg Cu, 70 kg Pb, 40 kg Zn, 8 kg Cr, 4 kg Ni, 0.2 kg Cd and finally 0.01 kg Hg. Accumulation probably still continues, with the exception of Hg and possibly Cd. The accumulation rates have not been calculated due to lack of reliable recycling data.

The waste flow is large, hundreds of tons for Cu, Zn and Pb, for example. The majority of the goods are used in protected environments, hence the diffuse emission is negligible. Other goods are used in exposed environments and the diffuse emission is rather large.

It is also shown that diffuse emission from goods is the main source of heavy metals to the wastewater treatment plant Henriksdal in Stockholm. The diffuse sources are not efficiently regulated in the Environmental Code in Sweden, which makes it difficult for the water company (and others) to decrease diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 2003. 46 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 270
Keyword
Heavy metais, urban areas, Substance flow analysis, inflow, stock, outflow, diffuse emisson, waste, wastewater treatment plant, legislation, Tungmetaller, miljöaspekter
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29572 (URN)14947 (Local ID)91-7373-634-1 (ISBN)14947 (Archive number)14947 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-04-29, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-09-01Bibliographically approved

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Sörme, LouiseLohm, Ulrik

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