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Towards Increased Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: Barriers, Driving Forces & Policies
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. A higheruse of electricity than their European competitors, together with increased energy costs due to increasing energy prices in Swedish industry have negative impacts on results and competitiveness. Of great importance are thus different means which promote energy efficiency such as industrial energy policy instruments. However, cost-effective energy efficiency measuresare not always undertaken. In order to formulate and adopt accurate industrial energy end-use polices, it is thus of importanceto identify the barriers that inhibit the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. It is also of importance to identify the factors which promote the implementation. The aim of this thesis is to analyze industrial energy systems andmore specifically study factors that promote or inhibit energy end-use efficiency in Swedish industrial companies.

Results from this thesis show that the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures is a major means for both energy-intensive and non-energy-intensive Swedish companies to overcome the threat of rising energy prices, for example for electricity. While energy efficiency measures in the non-energy-intensive industry are related mainly to support processes, measures in the studied energy-intensive Swedish foundry industry are related to both support and production processes.

In the various case studies of barriers and driving forces, the most significant barriers to energy efficiency - with largevariations for some of the barriers among the studied cases - were found to be: technical risk such as risk of productiondisruptions; lack of time or other priorities; lack of access to capital; cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience; other priorities for capital investments; technology considered inappropriate at the site; difficulty/cost of obtaininginformation about the energy use of purchased equipment; and lack of budget funding. The largest driving forces, apart fromcost reductions resulting from lowered energy use, were found to be the existence of a long-term energy strategy and peoplewith real ambition. These driving forces did not, unlike the results of barriers to energy efficiency, vary widely across thestudied sectors.

Investment decision support such as optimization has shown to add more information for larger capital-intensive investmentsin energy-intensive industrial SMEs. The thesis also showed that energy audits are an effective means, in terms of publicmoney spent per kWh saved, of providing the industry with information on potential energy efficiency measures.

Based on the results presented in this thesis, a policy approach towards non-energy-intensive companies and industrial SMEsshould primarily include providing energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

Abstract [sv]

Industriell energieffektivisering är ett av de viktigaste sätten att reducera hotet om en globaluppvärmning. En högre relativ elanvändning, i jämförelse med europeiska konkurrenter, tillsammans med stigande energikostnader beroende av stigande energipriser för den svenskaindustrin, riskerar leda till försämrad lönsamhet och försämrad konkurrenskraft. Det är såledesav stor vikt att främja energieffektivisering, exempelvis genom olika typer av styrmedel. Lönsamma energieffektiviseringsåtgärder genomförs emellertid inte alltid, till följd av olikahinder för energieffektivisering. För att kunna formulera precisa styrmedel är det därför avstor vikt att dessa hinder som förhindrar implementering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder,identifieras. Det är också av stor vikt att identifiera drivkrafterna. Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera industriella energisystem och mera specifikt studera faktorer somfrämjar och förhindrar effektiv slutanvändning av energi i svensk industri.

Resultaten visar att hotet om stigande energikostnader, exempelvis beträffande elektricitet,både för icke energiintensiv och för energiintensiv svensk tillverkningsindustri, kan reduceraskraftigt om energieffektiv teknik implementeras. Medan åtgärder i icke energiintensiv industrifrämst är relaterade till stödprocesser så visar sig åtgärderna i den studerade svenska energiintensiva gjuteriindustrin vara relaterade till både stöd- och produktionsprocesser.

I fallstudierna beträffande hinder och drivkrafter visade sig de största hindren vara - med storavariationer mellan fallen - tekniska risker såsom risk för produktionsstörningar och avbrott; brist på tid/andra prioriteringar; brist på kapital; kostnader för produktionsstörningar; ickeenergirelaterade investeringar prioriteras högre; tekniken passar ej för företaget;svårigheter/kostnader att erhålla korrekt information beträffande energianvändningen av deninköpta utrustningen; och brist på budgetmedel. De största drivkrafterna var, utöver kostnadsminskningar till följd av minskad energianvändning, förekomsten av en långsiktigenergistrategi och en eldsjäl. Drivkrafterna varierade inte, till skillnad mot hindren, så mycketmellan de olika undersökta fallen.

Beslutsstöd såsom exempelvis optimering har visat sig kunna ge ökad information vid störremer kapitalintensiva investeringar i energiintensiva små- och medelstora företag. Vidare har energianalyser visat sig vara ett effektivt sätt, i termer av besparad kWh per statligt insattkrona, att ge industrin information beträffande möjliga energieffektiviserande åtgärder.

Resultat från avhandlingen indikerar att ett stöd gentemot icke energiintensiva och små och medelstora företag framförallt bör inkludera statligt finansierade energianalyser med denlokala energirådgivaren som en deltagande aktör.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 83 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1214
Keyword [en]
Industrial energy efficiency, barriers, driving forces, investment decision support, energy policies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14907ISBN: 978-91-7393-793-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14907DiVA: diva2:25543
Public defence
2008-10-28, ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry
2005 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 81, no 2, 115-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union’s electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12508 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.07.006 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Magnus Karlsson, Mats Söderström, Dan Creutz, Reducing industrial energy costs through energy efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market - Case study of a Swedish iron foundry, 2005, Applied Energy, (81), 2, 115-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.07.006. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Industrial energy auditing: A key to competitive energy-efficient Swedish SMEs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial energy auditing: A key to competitive energy-efficient Swedish SMEs
2007 (English)In: Energy Efficiency Research Advances: Edited by David M. Bergmann / [ed] David M. Bergmann,Grant allan,Carla Balocco,Giovan Battista Andreani ,C. A. Cardona, Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2007, 213-238 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency is increased when an energy conversion device, such as a steam turbine, undergoes a technical change that enable it to produce more heat or electricity from the same amount of fuel. This contrasts with energy conservation and energy curtailment. The cumulative effect of energy efficiency can be enormous and significant in a country like the United States which uses so much more energy than it produces. This book brings together important research and analyses which put this critical issue in perspective

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2007
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12509 (URN)978-16-00-21880-4 (ISBN)160-02-1880-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-02-09Bibliographically approved
3. Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
2006 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 12, 1836-1844 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

Keyword
Energy efficiency, Barriers, Driving forces, Industry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12510 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: P. Rohdin and P. Thollander, Barriers to and Driving Forces for Energy Efficiency in the Non-Energy Intensive Manufacturing Industry in Sweden, 2006, Energy, (31), 12, 1836-1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, 672-677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

Keyword
Barriers, Drivers, Industrial energy efficiency
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12511 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Rohdin, Patrik Thollander, Petter Solding, Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry, 2006, Energy Policy, (35), 1, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, 5774-5783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Energy efficiency, Energy audits, Industrial energy programmes
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12512 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Maria Danestig and Patrik Rohdin, Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency - Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs, 2007, Energy Policy, (35), 11, 5774-5783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments
2008 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, Vol. 1, no 1, 21-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates whether this holds for the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and if so, investigates the barriers inhibiting and the driving forces stressing cost-effective energy efficiency investments. By so, this case study covers about 2% of the EU-25 industrial end-use of energy. The overall results from a questionnaire show that there is an energy efficiency gap in the sector and that the largest barriers were technical risks such as risk of production disruptions, cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience, technology inappropriate at the mill, lack of time and other priorities, lack of access to capital, and slim organization. As regards the driving forces for energy efficiency, the highest ranked driving forces were cost reductions resulting from lower energy use, people with real ambition, long-term energy strategy, the threat of rising energy prices, the electricity certificate system, the PFE. The results show that many of the barriers and driving forces were not solely market-related, e.g., lack of time or other priorities, slim organization, other priorities for capital investments, lack of staff awareness, and long decision chains indicate that firm-specific barriers plays an important role. These barriers may not be overcome by market-related public policy instruments but is rather a consequence of how the energy issue is organized within the firms. The second and the third largest driving forces, people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy further support this.

Keyword
Energy efficiency, Pulp and paper industry, Barriers, Driving forces, Energy policies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12513 (URN)10.1007/s12053-007-9001-7 (DOI)
Note
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Patrik Thollander and Mikael Ottosson, An energy efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry – exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments, 2007, Energy Efficiency, (1), 1, 21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12053-007-9001-7. Copyright: Springer-Verlag, www.springerlink.com Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2009-05-15Bibliographically approved
7. Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, 433-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry’s investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces – which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
Energy efficiency, Foundry industry, Investment decision support, Optimization
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12514 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012 (DOI)000263490400005 ()
Note

Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Nawzad Mardan and Magnus Karlsson, Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing, 2009, Applied Energy, (86), 4, 433-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/

Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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