Dietary risk factors for the emergence of type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies in 2½-year-old Swedish children
2006 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 95, no 3, 603-608 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We studied dietary risk factors by analysing a questionnaire administered at birth, 1 year and 2½ years of age, as well as the level of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and tyrosine phosphatase autoantibodies (IA-2A), in 7208 2½-year-old children from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden cohort, using the 95th percentile cut-off for autoantibodies to identify children at risk of type 1 diabetes. A total of 657 children had either IA-2A (n 360) or GADA (n 335), and thirty-eight children had both GADA and IA-2A. In univariate analysis, male gender and maternal coeliac disease implied a risk of possessing IA-2A. Maternal type 2 diabetes, a high consumption of fresh cows milk at the age of 1 year and a late introduction of gluten were associated with a risk of GADA. Early cessation of breast-feeding (≤2 months of age) was associated with a risk of the simultaneous occurrence of both IA-2A and GADA. In logistic regression analysis, a high consumption of milk at the age of 1 year (odds ratio 2·6) represented a risk for GADA, and maternal coeliac disease (odds ratio 2·9) represented a risk for IA-2A. The combination of an early introduction of cows milk formula and a late introduction of gluten-containing food gave an odds ratio of 6·0 for positivity for at least one autoantibody at 1 and 2½ years of age. The induction of autoantibodies by the age of 2½ years has a male preponderance and is more common in children with maternal type 2 diabetes or maternal coeliac disease. Dietary risk factors for the induction of β-cell autoantibodies in 2½-year-old children are a short duration of breast-feeding, an early introduction of cows milk formula and a late introduction of gluten, as well as a high consumption of milk at the age of 1 year.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 95, no 3, 603-608 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34825DOI: 10.1079/BJN20051676Local ID: 23452OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-34825DiVA: diva2:255673