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Organic chlorine and chloride in soil
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chloride is generally believed to be conservative with respect to water and is often used as atracer of water movement in hydrological research and biogeochemical modeling. However,the last decade of research has shown that naturally fanned organically bound chlorine isubiquitous in the environment. The turnover of such compounds has previously not been putin relation to the geochemical cycle of chloride.

The aim of this thesis was to examine and compare the distribution of organically bound chlorine and chloride in soil. The influence of central soil-forming factors, such as climate, ecosystems and topography were studied and special attention was paid to spatial distribution patterns. Samples were collected in southern Sweden and in the Anhui province in China. The former is situated in the temperate region and the latter in the subtropical region.

The results show that the storage of organic chlorine in the Swedish soils was 2-4 times larger than the chloride storage. This suggest that the storage of organic chlorine in forest soils with a moderate chloride deposition in the temperate region is of such size that even small changes in this storage are likely to have a considerable impact on the transport of chloride. In contrast, the size of the storage of organic chlorine in the Chinese soils was 2 times smaller than the storage of chloride. The storage is still of such size that it cannot be excluded thatchanges in this storage influence the transport of chloride.

It was also found that the concentration of both forms of chlorine varied among different types of ecosystems such as coniferous and deciduous forest soils. In addition, both forms of chlorine appear to vary seasonally with higher concentrations in the winter and lower concentrations in the summer. The spatial distribution pattem of organic chlorine followed that for organic matter in the Chinese forest soil whereas it followed the pattern of chloride in the study of Swedish forest soils.

In conclusion, the occurrence of organically bound chlorine in soil is influenced by factors such as climate, type of ecosystem and the topography. It is suggested that net-changes in the storage of organic chlorine are of importance for the transport of chloride, which implies that the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine should be addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2000. , 55 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 210
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35039Local ID: 24714ISBN: 91-7219-724-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-35039DiVA: diva2:255887
Public defence
2000-09-15, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2014-09-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Organic and chlorine in Swedish spruce forest soil: Influence of nitrogen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic and chlorine in Swedish spruce forest soil: Influence of nitrogen
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2001 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 101, no 3-4, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concentrations of organic and inorganic chlorine were estimated in samples collected in forest soils in the southern part of Sweden, and changes were observed after the addition of nitrogen in incubated samples. All of the investigated samples contained both inorganic and organic chlorine, and the concentration of organic chlorine was 2-4 times larger than that of inorganic chlorine. The results suggest that the amount of organic chlorine in mature spruce forest soils with a moderate chloride deposition in the temperate region is larger than the amount of inorganic chlorine. The results of the nitrogen incubation indicate that addition of ammonium nitrate causes a net decrease in the concentration of organic chlorine and a net increase in chloride concentration. The observed change appears to mainly be a result of a dechlorination of the organic matter present in the water leachable fraction. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

Keyword
Chloride, Nitrogen, Organic chlorine, Soil organic matter
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47419 (URN)10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00087-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Production of organically bound halogens by the litter-degrading fungus Lepista nuda
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of organically bound halogens by the litter-degrading fungus Lepista nuda
1999 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 31, no 11, 1510-1515 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of Lepista nuda to produce organically bound halogens was tested both in a laboratory study of a pure culture and in a field study. It was found that L. nuda caused an increase in the total amount of organically bound halogens in the study of a pure culture, but possibly because of large variance between replicates, no such increase could be detected in the field study. In addition, in both the laboratory and the field studies, low-molecular-weight organohalogens such as chlorinated benzaldehydes were detected in all samples affected by the fungus and the amounts were 0.2–82 μg/g d.w. These low-molecular-weight compounds correspond to approximately 30% of the increase in organohalogens detected in the laboratory study. It is suggested that the low-molecular-weight organohalogens detected, most likely are produced de novo by L. nuda and that production of such compounds followed by an incorporation into high-molecular-weight compounds is an explanation for the increase in amounts in the laboratory study.

Keyword
Litter-degrading fungi, Chlorinated organic compounds, Production
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32221 (URN)10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00069-3 (DOI)18094 (Local ID)18094 (Archive number)18094 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Spatial Patterns of Organic Chlorine and Chloride in Farmland and Forest Soil in the Meicun Area, South East China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Patterns of Organic Chlorine and Chloride in Farmland and Forest Soil in the Meicun Area, South East China
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The concentration and storage of organic chlorine and chloride were determined in topsoil in a coniferous forest soil and a paddy soil at a sampling site in the Meicun area, Anhui Province, P.R. China. Also, the spatial distribution of the two forms of chlorine was determined and linear interpolation was used to construct contour maps of the concentrations. Soil samples were collected at 55 of the nodes in a grid with approximately 120 m between the nodes. In all, 27 samples from the forest and 28 from the paddy soil were collected and analyzed with respect to chloride, organic chlorine, organic carbon, pH, total nitrogen,ammonium and nitrate.

The concentration of organic chlorine was at both sites significantly lower than that of chloride. Furthermore, the concentration of organic chlorine was significantly lower in the paddy as compared to the forest soil whereas the concentration of chloride did not differ significantly.

The analysis of spatial variability suggested that no spatial correlation between the nearest sampling points and those further away were at hand. The contour maps indicated that the distribution pattern of organic chlorine in the forest soil was similar to the distribution of organic carbon, the highest and lowest concentrations of each occurring at about the same locations in the grid. The distribution of chloride showed a different pattern where the highest concentrations coincided with the most elevated parts of the hill. No clear patterns were observed for the three variables in the paddy field.

Keyword
Organic chlorine, chloride, spatial distribution, soil
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79137 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
4. Organic chlorine in deciduous and coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic chlorine in deciduous and coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden
2003 (English)In: Soil science, ISSN 0038-075X, E-ISSN 1538-9243, Vol. 168, no 5, 347-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentration of organic chlorine (Clorg) was determined in soil samples collected in the O-horizon in forest soils in southern Sweden to describe differences among stand types and elucidate the influence of chloride (Clinorg), pH, and organic carbon. The samples were collected within the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation, with moraine as the dominating soil type and with granite and gneiss as bedrock. The concentration of organic chlorine (Clorg) found in the deciduous forest soils was significantly lower than that in the coniferous forest soils. The Clorg increased with Clinorg, organic carbon content, and decreasing pH but was most strongly correlated to Clinorg. Crosswise comparisons among the variables showed that the influence of Clinorg overrode the influence of pH and organic carbon. We concluded that the major driving force in the formation of Clorg in soils is deposition of Clinorg and that the difference among deciduous and coniferous stands is due primarily to a higher input of Clinorg in the canopy of coniferous trees as a result of a larger wet and dry deposition in coniferous compared with deciduous forests. The concentration of Clorg decreased significantly from June to August. This follows the pattern of chloride deposition in the region and gives further evidence that Clinorg is a driving force in the formation of Clorg in soil. The results of the present study gives further evidence that the turnover of Clorg is closely related to the turnover of Clinorg and that it is necessary to include Clorg in the assessment of the biogeochemical cycling of chlorine in the environment.

Keyword
organic chlorine, chloride, soil, temporal distribution
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22121 (URN)10.1097/01.ss.0000070909.55992.91 (DOI)1223 (Local ID)1223 (Archive number)1223 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Spatial patterns of organic chlorine and chloride in Swedish forest soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial patterns of organic chlorine and chloride in Swedish forest soil
2003 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, no 2, 391-397 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentration of organic carbon, organic chlorine and chloride was determined in Swedish forest soil in the southern part of Sweden and the spatial distribution of the variables were studied. The concentration of organically bound chlorine was positively correlated to the organic carbon content, which is in line with previous studies. However, the spatial distribution patterns strongly indicate that some other variable adds structure to the spatial distribution of organic chlorine. The distribution patterns for chloride strongly resembled the distribution of organic chlorine. The spatial distribution of chloride in soil depends on the deposition pattern which in turn depends on prevailing wind-direction, amount of precipitation and the distance from the sea. This suggests that the occurrence of organic chlorine in soil is influenced by the deposition of chloride of some variable that co-varies with chloride. Two clearly confined strata were found in the area: the concentrations of organic chlorine and chloride in the western area were significantly higher than in the eastern area. No such difference among the two areas was seen regarding the carbon content.

Keyword
Organic chlorine, Chloride, Soil, Spatial distribution
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22123 (URN)10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00193-0 (DOI)1225 (Local ID)1225 (Archive number)1225 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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