Isolation, Characterization and Risk Analysis of Organic Micropollutants in Water
1988 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The work in this thesis primarily aimed at studying and further developing methods for the isolation, fractionation and characterization of organic compounds in water.
Suitable concentration methods are a prerequisite for the characterization and risk analysis of such compounds. This work showed that isolation methods that have long been in use can be substantially improved. By increasing the temperature during stripping enrichment and selecting a suitable solvent mixture in the desorption of the carbon filter, the recovery of many compounds with different functional groups was significantly increased. In the XAD-2 adsorption method, change of solvent sequence and careful optimization of each of the steps in the procedure were sufficient for obtaining both a high recovery and a low blank level.
Another aspect of enrichment and characterization of organics in water, is the risk of interference from other substances in the sample. The work on XAD-2 adsorption satisfactorily resulted in the subsequent gas chromatographic analysis of the extracts being only slightly affected by humic substances in the sample. The hypothesis that the simultaneous presence of inorganic chloride and humic substances may interfere with the determinations of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was tested and rejected.
A comparison of different concentration techniques, concerning their efficiency in concentrating mutagens in water, showed that XAD-2 adsorption and dichloromethane extraction were appropriate and equally efficient. Chlorinated surface drinking water contains both acidic and neutral/alkaline rnutagens, the acidic mutagens by far the most important, as determined by Ames test activity.
The study of the impact of bleached kraft mill effluents on the quality of drinking water produced downstream the mill, gave new perspectives on chlorination by-products in drinking water. Even when a pulp mill is located as unfavourably as the one studied here, the contribution of mutagenic substances from the mill is almost negligible as compared to the contribution from products of the reactions between naturally occurring organic material and chlorine, applied in the drinking water disinfection process. However, concerning the total concentration of chlorinated compounds in drinking water, measured as AOX, pulp mill effluents might contribute to a dominating fraction. The toxicological implications of this fact are far from fully understood.
Observations of 10-50 micrograms per litre of AOX in surface waters not affected by industrial effluents, strongly indicate that there is a large, thus far unidentified, source of organohalogen compounds in freshwater. Although the character of this work is preliminary, it points out a new direction for research on organohalogens in the environment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 1988. , 45 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 20
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35292Local ID: 26191ISBN: 91-7870-346-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-35292DiVA: diva2:256140
1988-05-26, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Papers, included in the Ph.D. thesis, are not registered and included in the posts from 1999 and backwards.2009-10-102009-10-102012-08-13Bibliographically approved