liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The trace of metals: Use, emissions and sediment load of urban heavy metals
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban areas have been considered potential ecological hot spots for metal pollution. This is the result of three trends. First, the 20th century saw a rapid increase in the use of many materials, including metals, in the industrialized world. Second, urbanization has made towns and cities areas nodes of material flows. Third, emissions from production activities have received considerable attention and regulation, but emissions via consumption have largely been ignored, so for several metals they have become more important than emissions from production activities. These emissions largely occur from centres of population. Thus, metal pollutionin urban areas is a subject of increasing importance.

Whereas most studies of environmental pollution have dealt with pollutants in the environment, a new research field has evolved that is devoted to earlier identification of the fluxes that cause pollution. A tool in this work is material flux analysis. This thesis presents an extendedmaterial flux analysis of five heavy metals, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. This approach combines an analysis of the metal fluxes within the urban system, with an investigation of sediments, which aims at identifying the current sediment load of metals, and to reconstruct the historical load by using dated sediment cores.

The results indicate that the use of Cd, Hg and Pb have been reduced during the last three decades. Thus emissions to the aquatic environment have been substantially reduced. However, metal concentrations in sediments from central Stockholm, as well as fluxes of metals to the sediments, arc highly elevated compared to other areas. Budget comparisons indicate that the area investigated in and around Stockholm has changed from a positive balance, indicating a net export of Cd, Hg and Pb to the Baltic in the 1970s, to a negative balance, indicating thatthere are unidentified sources of these metals. For Cu, the budget is approximately balanced, and for Zn the area seems to be an exporter to the Baltic Sea.

It is argued that the unbalanced budgets of Cd, Hg and Pb highlight the importance of integrated approaches, and of including sediment loads in environmental monitoring. The results also stress the need for a better understanding of the urban biogeochemistry of heavy metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2000. , 64 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 221
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35393Local ID: 26549ISBN: 91-7219-880-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-35393DiVA: diva2:256241
Public defence
2000-12-01, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Urban Metabolism of Mercury: Turnover, Emissions and Stock in Stockholm 1795-1995
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Metabolism of Mercury: Turnover, Emissions and Stock in Stockholm 1795-1995
2001 (English)In: Water, air, & soil pollution. Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 179-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article accounts for the use of mercury (Hg) in different activities in Stockholm during the time period 1795-1995.Turnover of Hg is estimated to 122-440 tons, amounts recycled: 27-50 tons and total emissions of Hg are estimated to 90-390 tons. The stock was approximately 4.4-8.1 tons in 1995. 19th century handicraft occupations and medical treatment emitted a large part of the Hg, emission sources that hitherto have been unknown in Sweden. Emissions peaked around 1960, thereafter the emissions plummeted, being the result of decreased use of Hg for dental fillings and in products such as batteries, while recycling efforts had a limited effect on reducing total emissions. Based on this finding, the current focus on collectionof Hg containing products for long term storage in bedrock is questioned. If the aim is to reduce the potential for environmental hazards because of Hg it might be better to focusmore attention on the already emitted amounts since these are nearly 30 times greater than the amount of Hg in stock.

Keyword
emission, mercury, urban
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33998 (URN)10.1023/A:1017512423006 (DOI)20278 (Local ID)20278 (Archive number)20278 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
2. Heavy metal sediment load from the city of Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heavy metal sediment load from the city of Stockholm
2001 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 103-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A transect of upstream lake sites and downstream coastal sites surrounding the city of Stockholm, capital of Sweden, were investigated for heavy metals in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn increased close to the city. In the most central areas of Stockholm, sediment deposition was increased about 5-fold for Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb and 3-fold for Zn, as compared to the surrounding areas. The sediment load from the city was estimated by correcting for a background concentration. It can be concluded that most of the load of Hg and Pb was trapped in the sediments close to the city while Ni, Cu, Cd and Zn to a higher degree were transported through the archipelago towards the Baltic Sea.

Keyword
contamination, fluxes, metals, sediments, urban area
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30555 (URN)10.1023/A:1017552004351 (DOI)16143 (Local ID)16143 (Archive number)16143 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
3. Reconstructions of the historical mercury emissions from Stockholm based on the urban metabolism and laminated sediment cores
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstructions of the historical mercury emissions from Stockholm based on the urban metabolism and laminated sediment cores
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The 20th century history of mercury emissions from Stockholm has been reconstructed using a model based on the urban metabolism. The deposition of mercury in scdiments around the city was calculated using laminated sediment cores. The sediment data were used to make an independent reconstruction that was compared to the results of the model. Both reconstructions make it very clear that there is a long history of mercury pollution in Stockholm

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79127 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
4. Phasing out cadmium and lead: Emissions and sediment loads in an urban area
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phasing out cadmium and lead: Emissions and sediment loads in an urban area
2002 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 292, no 1-2, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines how fluxes in the aquatic environment reflect the reduced use of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Stockholm, Sweden, between 1975 and 1995. The sediment deposition of Cd and Pb in the waters around Stockholm was investigated using laminated sediment cores, which facilitated reconstructions of historical annual metal deposition to the sediments. The resulting reconstructions were compared to independent estimations of the emissions to the aquatic environment during the phase-out period. The loads of Cd and Pb from sewage treatment plants, storm water and in atmospheric deposition were studied using literature data. The data set indicates a reduced load of Cd and Pb on the aquatic surroundings of Stockholm. The reduction is, however, not as pronounced in the sediment deposition as in the calculated emissions. This indicates that emissions may be delayed on their way to the sediments or that there are other sources, e.g. resuspension of older sediments. It is therefore argued that sediment investigations are an essential component in environmental monitoring, in order to get a complete picture of the metal fluxes to and in the environment in urban areas. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword
Cd, Emissions, Pb, Reconstructions, Sediments, Stockholm
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46970 (URN)10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00029-3 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
5. Sources of Copper and Zinc to the aquatic recipients of Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of Copper and Zinc to the aquatic recipients of Stockholm
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A budget is presented for Cu and Zn in the aquatic surroundings of Stockhohn. The results indicate that the sediment deposition of Cu in the area studied approximately balances the sources. For Zn, there seems to be a net export from the area to the open Baltic Sea. The regional background is the dominating source for both metals. Among the anthropogenic sources sewage treatment plants and storm water were found to emit considerable amounts. The origin of Cu and Zn to sewage and storm water was therefore studied. Tap water, brake linings and copper roofs were found to be the major sources of Cu to the recipient, and for Zn the main sources are galvanized goods and tyres. Food wasfound to be a considerable source relating to both metals.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79130 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Jonsson, Arne

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Jonsson, Arne
By organisation
Department of Water and Environmental StudiesFaculty of Arts and Sciences
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 580 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf