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Multimedia representations of distributed tactical operations
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Our society frequently faces minor and major crises that require rapid intervention by well-prepared forces from military organizations and public-safety agencies. Feedback on the performance in operations is crucial to maintain and improve the quality of these forces. This thesis presents methods and tools for reconstruction and exploration of tactical operations. Specifically, it investigates how multimedia representations of tactical operations can be constructed and used to help participants, managers, and analysts uncover the interaction between distributed teams and grasp the ramifications of decisions and actions in a dynamically evolving situation. The thesis is the result of several field studies together with practitioners from the Swedish Armed Forces and from the public-safety sector in Sweden and the United States. In those studies, models of realistic exercises were constructed from data collected from multiple sources in the field and explored by participants and analysts in subsequent after-action reviews and in-depth analyses. The results of the studies fall into three categories. First, we explain why multimedia representations are useful and demonstrate how they support retrospective analysis of tactical operations. Second, we describe and characterize a general methodology for constructing models of tactical operations that can be adapted to the specific needs and conditions in different domains. Third, we identify effective mechanisms and a set of reusable representations for presenting multimedia models of operations. An additional contribution is a domain-independent, customizable visualization framework for exploring multimedia representations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2002. , 100 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 771
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35580Local ID: 27765ISBN: 91-7373-421-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-35580DiVA: diva2:256428
Public defence
2002-09-24, Seminarierum Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-01-03
List of papers
1. Instrumented force-on-force battle training in Sweden: lessons learned during the first five years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instrumented force-on-force battle training in Sweden: lessons learned during the first five years
1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Training and Education Conference (ITEC98), 1998, 30-43 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an army based on conscription the time for training is limited and, therefore, efficient training methods are of great importance. There is also a great need to find objective means of ensuring that the units are capable of carrying out their tasks. This insight led to the decision by the Swedish Army in 1992 to conduct a series of experimental instrumented force-on-force battle training exercises. The encouraging outcome of these experiments resulted in the establishment of an experimental battle training centre for the development of techniques and methods for training and evaluation of mechanised units.

In this paper, we present an overview of the activities related to instrumented force-on-force battle training in the Swedish Army today and share some of the lessons learned on the way. In particular, we describe the different phases of a typical battle training exercise, including the preparation performed by the training unit and the training centre staff before the exercise, the arrangements made on the training site before the exercise, the execution of the exercise, the training command and supervision during the exercise, the compilation and examination of data collected during the exercise, and the after-action review. We also show how the information collected during a single exercise, or a series of exercises, can be used in technical or tactical analyses to identify potential problems with a particular piece of equipment or a specific operating procedure.

In addition to evaluating each battle training exercise by means of an after-action review, it is equally important to systematically evaluate the techniques and methods used to support training. To this end we have devised a number of methods and tools which we report on in the paper.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86751 (URN)
Conference
Ninth International Training and Education Conference (ITEC98), April 28-30, Lausanne, Switzerland
Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
2. Training emergency management and response: creating the big picture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Training emergency management and response: creating the big picture
1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Emergency Management Society's Fifth Annual Conference, 1998, 553-561 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A disaster scene is a complex and dangerous environment. The number of casualties recovered and lives saved during a rescue mission depend not only on the ability of the members of the rescue party to carry out their individual tasks, but also on the close cooperation between individuals and units, and the careful coordination of their efforts. Effective training of emergency management and response is mandatory to ensure the successful outcome of a rescue mission under these circumstances.

After-action analysis and evaluation are vital to improve training efficiency at large-scale rescue exercises. This task, however, is inherently difficult because the participating rescue units operate geographically separated, are assigned individual tasks, and carry out activities in parallel. In addition, the units are controlled by commanders at different levels and locations, who make decisions based on their perception of the current situation. As a consequence, there are as many views of the exercise as there are participants. To overcome this diversity, and thus provide a common frame of reference for subsequent analysis and evaluation, it is necessary to establish an objective view of the course of events. Instead of trying to investigate what happened, it becomes possible to concentrate on why something happened.

In this paper we describe methods and tools for supporting after-action analysis and evaluation of large-scale rescue exercises. We concentrate on how to select, record, compile, and replay relevant events to provide a coherent view of a complex mission. We demonstrate the various steps of our approach by relating to an emergency response exercise in Sweden in October 1997. During this exercise we registered more than 10,000 events and intercepted some 800 radio transmissions. The course of events were replayed to the 230 participants at the after-action review 90 minutes after the conclusion of the exercise.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86752 (URN)
Conference
International Emergency Management Society's Fifth Annual Conference, TIEMS'98, Washington DC, May 19-22, 1998
Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
3. Extending a battle-training instrumentation system to support emergency response training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending a battle-training instrumentation system to support emergency response training
1999 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Training and Education Conference, ITEC 2000, 1999, 550-562 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paramount importance of efficient training methods is becoming increasingly clear in most armed forces as the technical sophistication of weapons and communications systems grows while the resources available for training are being reduced due to budget cuts and environmental restrictions. As a result, force-on-force battle training on instrumented ranges has become an established means of improving the effect of training, especially at the company and battalion level of mechanised units. The purpose of the instrumentation system is twofold: it simulates the effects of the main weapon systems to improve realism and it monitors and registers the activities on the training ground to support subsequent analysis and feedback. However, as armed forces are facing new tasks, such as peace-keeping, peace-enforcement and humanitarian assistance, the raining requirements change as well. It is therefore important to investigate to which extent existing instrumentation systems for battle training can support other types of full team training involving both military and civilian forces.

In this paper, we report on a successful attempt to use an existing battle training instrumentation system (the MIND system, used by the Swedish Army since 1993) to support an emergency response exercise. In this exercise a rescue force consisting of firefighters, medical personnel, and police responded to a simulated chemical warfare attack on a railway junction in southern Sweden. 90 minutes after the end of the five-hour exercise all 230 participants attended the after-action review. We use this case to compare the technical and methodological requirements on the instrumentation system in support of battle training and emergency response training, respectively. Based on this analysis, and the practical implications of our field trials, we conclude that even if the available data sources vary and the simulation requirements are very different in the two domains, it is nevertheless possible to support both types of training in a single framework. Furthermore, we discuss the support of integrated training of relief forces made up of both military and civilian units.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86753 (URN)
Conference
10th International Training and Education Conference (ITEC 2000), The Hague, The Netherlands, April 13-15, 1999
Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
4. Computer-supported visualization of rescue operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer-supported visualization of rescue operations
2000 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 35, no 1-3, 3-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective emergency management and response require a thorough understanding of the processes involved in a rescue operation and their interaction. Appropriate methods and tools for computer visualization of rescue operations can greatly facilitate activities such as command and control, system analysis, training, evaluation, and transfer of lessons learned. To this end, we introduce a method for systematic analysis, modeling and visualization of a rescue scenario. Models of rescue scenarios, prepared in advance, serve as the basis for data collection during an operation. The data collected are visualized in a computer tool with several views that can be customized according to the needs of different users. We demonstrate the method by applying it to a rescue operation where a taskforce trains for emergency response to a chemical incident.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47641 (URN)10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00019-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
5. Multimedia representations in reconstruction and exploration of distributed tactical operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimedia representations in reconstruction and exploration of distributed tactical operations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Multimedia representations of human activities in complex real-world settings, such as emergency response and military operations, can help participants, managers, and researchers to grasp the ramifications of decisions and actions in a dynamic environment. Gathering, organizing, and presenting relevant data from spatially and temporally distributed observation points are crucial steps in reconstructing the complex course of events of a tactical operation to enable exploration, analysis, and evaluation of the interaction between humans and systems in decision making and action. In a case study, we examine and classify multimedia representations of real-world operations in different domains and investigate how practitioners used them to explore the operations in retrospect. By identifying common representation patterns and presentation preferences we demonstrate the potential for reuse of models, methods, and tools across operations and domains. This step provides a crucial foundation for designing and implementing domain-independent, customizable frameworks that can support reconstruction and exploration in research, development, training, and operations.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86754 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-03

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