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Monitoring distributed teamwork training
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In team collaboration training, especially when the training is distributed on the net, it exists a problem of identifying the students' collaboration and work processes. An important design task when developing distributed interactive simulation systems for team training is therefore to define a proper monitoring functionality that will help training managers to evaluate the training. Thus a goal of a computer-based monitoring system is to give training managers help in understanding and assessing the performance of the trainees.

This thesis deals with the design and implementation of monitoring strategies for distributed collaboration training. The aim has been to explore different automatic monitoring strategies, and how they can help a training manger in their task of understanding the students' collaboration during a training session.

To explore possible monitoring strategies, a distributed, net-based micro-world simulation and training system, C3Fire, has been developed and three series of experiments has been performed. C3Fire provides a Command, Control and Communication training environment that can be used for team collaboration training of emergency management tasks. The training domain, which is forest fire fighting, acts as a micro-world, which creates a good dynamic environment for the trainees.

In the three performed studies a total of 192 persons have participated as students. A 132 of these were computer-literate undergraduate students and 60 professional military officers. In these studies four monitoring goals have been explored: the effectiveness of the teams, the information distribution in the organisation, the students situation awareness, and the students work and collaboration methods. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2002. , 36 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 746
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35583Local ID: 27809ISBN: 91-7373-312-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-35583DiVA: diva2:256431
Public defence
2002-05-02, Visionen, Hus B, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-12-21
List of papers
1. Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making
Show others...
2001 (English)In: Proceedings to Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 2001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses methodological issues of micro-world research within the domain of dynamic decision-making. Using the C3Fire micro-world as an example, several studies are presented and discussed. It is concluded that there are several advantages of using micro-world simulations in the development of information systems, but also that there still exist fundamental problems, such as measuring team performance.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61998 (URN)
Conference
Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 14-16 November, Granada Spain
Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2015-06-02
2. Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld
2004 (English)In: Scaled worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications / [ed] Samuel G. Schiflett, Linda R. Elliott, Eduardo Salas, Michael D. Coovert, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2004, -363 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This text identifies and discusses emerging challenges and opportunities arising from advanced-technology simulation-based microworld analogues of operational environments. These "scaled worlds" have been used and advocated for many years. A major transformation is expected in research and training using new, more advanced versions of these systems. Technology now affords new capabilities using PC-based systems. Complex and distributed expert decision making and team performance can be elicited and rehearsed through affordable and easily distributed systems. These new systems will transform the nature of research and training on two fronts: (1) the content internal (i.e. laboratory control) and external validity, and (2) who can do the research and/or training, as these new systems offer more opportunities/options. Organizations and universities are rapidly building internet-based systems to train, educate and/or utilize individuals who may be distributed across the globe. Researchers across the globe will also use these new capabilities, forging new and multi-discipline research as new alliances and collaborations are enabled. Research previously restricted to highly realistic and restricted high-fidelity systems will be open to more participants and these new processes and systems will create new opportunities. Such systems will offer more realism, control and feedback to researchers and trainers. Distributed systems can link multiple nodes, allowing many participants to perform within a shared scenario. Scenarios are more easily constructed and controlled. Opportunities using these internet-based systems are clear, as evidenced by high funding and investments in advanced internet-based training systems. Universities, corporations and DoD organizations are rapidly escalating their use of such systems for collaborative research, education, distributed training and distance learning. These simulation-based systems will rapidly change the nature of research, education and training for most performance domains. Low to medium fidelity environments capture knowledge and performance requirements while retaining high levels of experimental control and generalizability. This book goes further than others on simulation-based training and research (which focus on highly realistic systems) by addressing the issues of scale, fidelity and purpose in more abstracted scaled world systems. It brings together experts who use these systems, from a variety of perspectives. Their contributions document emerging trends and issues with regard to development, utilization and validation of these emerging "scaled world" systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23802 (URN)3325 (Local ID)978-0-7546-3509-3 (ISBN)0-754-6-3509-0 (ISBN)3325 (Archive number)3325 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
3. Web-based micro-world simulation for emergency management training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Web-based micro-world simulation for emergency management training
2001 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, no 5, 561-572 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Micro-world simulation and exercise monitoring will have an important role in future group distance exercise (GDE) systems. Micro-world simulations can be used for training basic co-ordination and collaborative work in emergency management and command-and-control situations. An important design task when developing distributed interactive simulation systems for GDE is to define a proper monitoring functionality that will help the training managers to evaluate the exercises. In our research, we have developed C3Fire, a web-based distributed interactive simulation system. This paper presents results from using the C3Fire micro-world and our work on exercise monitoring.

Keyword
Web-based simulation, distance education, exercise monitoring, micro-world simulation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49319 (URN)10.1016/S0167-739X(00)00039-X (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
4. Designing web-based simulation for learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing web-based simulation for learning
2000 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, no 2, 171-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Web-based simulation can be a powerful tool in education and training. The nature of simulation-based learning combined with the availability of the web make learning supported by web-based simulation a powerful strategy. In simulation-based learning, learners can experience environments that would be too costly, time-consuming, complex or dangerous to provide through other means. This article discusses some basic properties of learning using web-based simulation with the focus on different types of learning goals (instructional goals) and on proper instructional strategies (pedagogical strategies) for web-based simulation. We exemplify the classifications discussed with three web-based systems, developed by the authors, that represent different types of web-based simulation. Chernobyl — a nuclear power plant simulation. C3Fire — a micro-world supporting command and control training. ERCIS — a group distance-exercise system supporting equipment handling, action-protocol performance and group interaction.

Keyword
web-based simulation, distance education, instructional strategies, simulation-based learning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49564 (URN)10.1016/S0167-739X(99)00112-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
5. Microworld systems for emergency management training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microworld systems for emergency management training
1998 (English)In: Co-Operative Process Management: Cognition and Information Technology / [ed] Yvonne Wærn, London: Taylor & Francis, 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter describes a research project that deals with the design and construction of computer simulation in decision training systems, in particular with the development of simulation systems for training of commanders and staff in emergency decision making and crisis management. This description focuses on the emergency management characteristics that influence the design and construction of a proper emergency management training system. The underlying assumption in this work is this: Decision training systems, for emergency management, can be more effective if pedagogical strategies are integrated into the computer simulations. To examine how emergency management training can be generated, we have developed C3Fire - a microworld simulation system.The rnicroworld generates a task environment for a forest fire fighting staff, where we can train a staff in commanding and controlling the fire-fightingunits. The goal of the rnicroworld is to have an experimental platform where we can study distributed decision making and situation awareness, and at the same time experiment with different control strategies in order to obtain certain specified pedagogical goals. This work is based on empirical studies of an existing military training system used to train infantry battalion staffs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 1998
Keyword
Process control, Informationsteknik IT
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86694 (URN)0-7484-0713-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-21 Created: 2012-12-21 Last updated: 2014-04-09
6. C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment
2001 (English)In: Proceedings to the 42nd Conference on Simulation and Moddeling, Simutalion in Theory and Practice, SIMS 2001, 2001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In development of future control systems, the problem of validating design decisions has been recognised. It has been proposed that the use of simulations can bridge the gap between the more ecologically valid field studies and strictly experimental studies in developmental research. Currently, a project aimed at designing and evaluating a new command and control environment is being conducted at the Swedish National Defence College (SwNDC). Novel artefacts and concepts aimed at supporting command and control has been developed and must now be tested. For this purpose, as specialised version of the C3Fire micro-world has been developed. This paper describes the C3Fire micro-world and the properties that make it possible to use the micro-world in the examination of networked command and control concepts in the ROLF environment.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61999 (URN)
Conference
42nd Conference on Simulation and Modelling, Simulation in Theory and Practice, 8-9 October 2001, Porsgrunn, Norway
Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2015-06-02
7. The team decision-making study: cooperation and situation awareness within and between time-scales in dynamic decision-making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The team decision-making study: cooperation and situation awareness within and between time-scales in dynamic decision-making
1997 (English)In: C3fire: a microworld supporting emergency management training / [ed] Rego Granlund, Linköping: Linköping Universitet , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This appendix describes the team decision-making study that was performed using C3Fire. This is an example of what type of study can be performed by using the C3Fire Microworld. It is a compressed version of the work report 'Cooperation & Situation Awareness within and between time scales in Dynamic Decision Making' (Artman 1996c).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping Universitet, 1997
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 598
Keyword
Computer supprted education, Simulation based learning, Agents, Decision training, Databehandling Tillämpningsprogram Systemprogram, Artificiell Intelligens AI
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86700 (URN)91-7871-890-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-21 Created: 2012-12-21 Last updated: 2014-04-09
8. Team situation awareness using graphical or textual databases in dynamic decision making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Team situation awareness using graphical or textual databases in dynamic decision making
1999 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] T. R. G. Green, 1999Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this experiment we explore the effects of using a graphical and textual database for sharing information within a team that are to control a dynamic system. The task involves fighting a simulated fire. Four people are to cooperate in a layered organisation, with one layer being the operative and the second layer the supervisory. The operative layer involves two fire chiefswho are commanding two fire units each. The supervisory unit consists of two persons that are to co-ordinate the fire chiefs. The supervisory unit receives all information from the fire chiefs but has to construct an overall picture, a so-called situation awareness, of the development of the whole area. The supervisory unit constructs this situation awareness which is meant to be supported by the graphical and textual databases respectively. We hypothesised that the graphical condition would be more successful than the textual database in registering the current situation, since the graphical database allows direct mapping. On the other hand, we hypothesised that the textual condition might be better in supporting the future planning and prediction of system dynamics. We analyse 18 quartets, 72 subjects by both performance measures and a questionnaire. There were no significant performance differences between conditions, but there is a major learning effect, especially for the textual condition. In accordance with our hypothesis we found that participants in the graphical condition did better mapping the map with the "real" world, at least in the first session. More successful groups worked more ahead of the fire than did less successful groups. From the questionnaire it seems that the subjects learn more about co-ordination and trusting their fellow team members than about the internal dynamics of the simulated fire. In fact, the teams learn things about system dynamics that are wrong. We therefore suggest that team SA might be more of a co-ordination problem than a problem of acquiring knowledge about system dynamics.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86703 (URN)
Conference
Ninth European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ECCE-9, University of Limerick, Ireland
Available from: 2012-12-21 Created: 2012-12-21 Last updated: 2012-12-21
9. The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment
2000 (English)In: In the 5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 2000Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ongoing development of the ROLF 2010 Joint Mobile Command and Control concept has led to several research questions about the usage of new technology in distributed decision making (see for example Artman & Persson, forthcoming). The ROLF-environment provides the decisionmakers with public as well as private representations (e.g. computer screens) and a wide range of communication tools. The focus of this article is the way in which the participants in such decision making should use the main public screen, the Visioscope™. The "more is more"-thought implies that the commander should benefit from getting as much information as possible. This means, for instance that direct updating without intervention of the commanders should give them a better view of the situation than if they were forced to update the Visioscope™ themselves. This latter approach would enforce a processing of the sequential and spatial organisation of the objects with which they are working. A series of tests are therefore being performed at the National Defence College in order to study the effects of the two conditions.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62024 (URN)
Conference
5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 26-28 May 2000, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2015-06-02

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