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Filter-based bandwidth estimation for communication networks
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in bandwidth estimation of communication networks. In the context of packet-switched data networks, such as the Internet, the term bandwidth commonly refers to the amount of information a network can deliver per time unit. Knowledge of bandwidth characteristics is of great significance in, e.g., end-to-end admission control, capacity planning, intelligent routing, audio/video streaming, and peer-to-peer applications.

For network end users, it is difficult to obtain bandwidth properties of a particular network link or path. Normally, it is only achievable by actively probing the network, and to perform estimation based on received measurements. Probing implies transmission of specific data packets, which are expected to be affected by the characteristics of the utilized network path.

In this thesis, the BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) method for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth is presented and evaluated. The available bandwidth of a network path corresponds to the minimum unused bandwidth capacity among all links between two end hosts. Besides applying active probing, BART uses Kalman filtering for the analysis of received probe packets.

BART is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory network and over the Internet. The opportunity of tuning the Kalman filter with respect to desired tracking ability is studied in more detail, as well as the virtue of enhancing performance by introducing change detection. In general, the results show accurate estimation under various circumstances, even though the method only requires modest computational efforts and minor injections of probe packets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. , 10 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1288
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36409Local ID: 31272ISBN: 91-8564-312-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-36409DiVA: diva2:257257
Presentation
2006-12-15, Sal TP1, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
List of papers
1. Real-Time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth using Kalman Filtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth using Kalman Filtering
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2006 (English)In: 10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, 2006. NOMS 2006., Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, 73-84 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a new method, BART (bandwidth available in real-time), for estimating the end-to-end available bandwidth over a network path. It estimates bandwidth quasi-continuously, in real-time. The method has also been implemented as a tool. It relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe packet pairs, sent at randomized rates. BART requires little computation in each iteration, is lightweight with respect to memory requirements, and adds only a small amount of probe traffic. The BART method uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation (a.k.a. tracking). It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separations in a sequence of probe packet pairs. The measurement model has a strong non-linearity, and would not at first sight be considered suitable for Kalman filtering, but we show how this non-linearity can be handled. BART may be tuned according to the specific needs of the measurement application, such as agility vs. stability of the estimate. We have tested an implementation of BART in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic, with good accuracy and agreement. Test measurements have also been performed over the Internet. We compare the performance of BART with that of pathChirp, a state-of-the-art tool for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth in real-time

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006
Series
IEEE IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, ISSN 1542-1201
Keyword
active measurement, available bandwidth, end-to-end, Kalman filter, probing, real-time
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36407 (URN)10.1109/NOMS.2006.1687540 (DOI)000261721300008 ()31270 (Local ID)1424401429 (ISBN)978-142440142-0 (ISBN)31270 (Archive number)31270 (OAI)
Conference
10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 3-7 April 2006
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
2. Tuning the Temporal Characteristics of a Kalman-Filter Method for End-to-End Bandwidth Estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning the Temporal Characteristics of a Kalman-Filter Method for End-to-End Bandwidth Estimation
2006 (English)In: 4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services, 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Press, 2006, 58-65 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a way of tuning the temporal characteristics of a new available-bandwidth estimation method, BART. The estimation engine in this method is Kalman-filter based. A current estimate of the available bandwidth is maintained, and for each new sequence of probe packet pairs an updated estimate is produced. The main input parameters needed by the Kalman filter are the variance of the measurement noise and the covariance of the process noise. The former is measured by the method, whereas the latter is not in general attainable by analytical or empirical investigation. Instead, it is reasonable to treat this as a tunable parameter. We discuss how the temporal characteristics of the tracking of end-to-end available bandwidth may be tuned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Press, 2006
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36402 (URN)10.1109/E2EMON.2006.1651280 (DOI)000238288300008 ()31250 (Local ID)1-4244-0145-3 (ISBN)31250 (Archive number)31250 (OAI)
Conference
4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services, Vancouver, Canada, April 3rd 2006
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
3. Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of SNCNW 2005, Sweden: SNCNW , 2005, 56- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper concerns simulation results using the network simulator ns-2 to validate the end-to-end available bandwidth estimation ability of the real-time measurement tool BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time). In addition to an active probing scheme, this method applies Kalman filtering in order to produce available bandwidth estimates. Simulation results show that clever use of an adjustable filter parameter yields great possibilities of achieving highly accurate estimates, even in the presence of harsh circumstances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden: SNCNW, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32258 (URN)18138 (Local ID)18138 (Archive number)18138 (OAI)
Conference
3rd SNCNW 2005, Halmstad, November 23-24, 2005
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2016-06-16
4. Enhanced Network-State Estimation using Change Detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Network-State Estimation using Change Detection
2006 (English)In: 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Proceedings 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, 683-693 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the concept of change detection for filter-based network-state estimation. This could be useful in various contexts; two examples are network management and adaptive applications. In particular, it is shown that the performance of available-bandwidth estimation can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique in conjunction with a filter-based estimator. By using filter-based approaches, it is possible to track the state of communication systems, and to estimate network properties in real-time. A virtue of filter-based methods is the ability to enhance the estimation performance by combining them with change detection. This makes it feasible to overcome the tradeoffs regarding speed of adaptation to changes versus stable estimation. We discuss filtering and change detection in general, and illustrate the power of this combination with the filter-based available-bandwidth estimator BART enhanced by the light-weight change-detection test CUSUM

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006
Series
PROCEEDINGS - CONFERENCE ON LOCAL COMPUTER NETWORKS, ISSN 0742-1303
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36408 (URN)10.1109/LCN.2006.322178 (DOI)000243785600102 ()31271 (Local ID)1-4244-0418-5 (ISBN)1-4244-0419-3 (ISBN)31271 (Archive number)31271 (OAI)
Conference
31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Tampa, U.S.A., 14-16 November 2006
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
5. Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection
2009 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 53, no 15, 2617-2645 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a filter-based method BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth in packet-switched communication networks. BART relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe-packet pairs. The method is light-weight with respect to computation and memory requirements, and performs well when only a small amount of probe traffic is injected. BART uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation. It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separation in a sequence of probe-packet pairs. It is possible to tune BART according to specific needs. The estimation performance can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique. An implementation of BART has been evaluated in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic. In addition, experiments have been performed over the Internet as well as over a mobile broadband connection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
Active probing; Available bandwidth; End-to-end; Kalman filtering; Network monitoring; Real-time estimation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21194 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2009.05.011 (DOI)000270059500002 ()
Available from: 2009-09-30 Created: 2009-09-30 Last updated: 2016-06-16

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