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A broad perspective on life cycle considerations in product development
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For products with long life cycles, operational and support costs represent a significant part of the total cost for the product. Moreover, such products frequently tend to be complex and contain a mixture of both mature. stable technology with bng life cycles and new technology with short life cycles. lt is therefore of great interest to industry to determine how to take these factors into consideration in an efficient way during product development.

Another factor that affects product development for these and other kinds of products with shorter life cycles is interest in taking a wider view of the end-user or customer scenario, for instance by offering support and after sales services for the products. All these interests drive the demand to consider life cycle related issues in product development, not just life cycle cost. This also makes a life cycle perspective interesting for fums that produce products with shorter life cycles than the ones studied here through the opportunity for after market sales and services.

This research has been explorative, aiming to understand how firms manage to take life cycle related demands into consideration during product development. The aim was to expand from a cost oriented focus to a wider focus, a value oriented focus, here called life cycle value. The dominant question has been "how" life cycle related demands are considered, focusing on barriers to and enablers for this. Equally important has been to determine the implication of life cycle value for different firms and industries and to find out where value is added in product development. A combination of a quantitative and qualitative research approach has been used to collect empirical data.

One important finding was that there is an interest to deliver a solution to the customer rather than just a product, to consider customer revenue. This adds a new perspective to the implication of life cycle value, moving from a life cycle cost scenario to a life cycle cost versus revenue scenario. The results fom cases were categorized into six main attributes. These attributes were considered to be very influential and important for the ability to take life cycle perspective into account during product development.

  • Holistic Perspective
  • Requirements & Metrics
  • Leadership & Management/Knowledge management
  • Tools & Methods
  • Organizational Factors
  • Enterprise Relationships

Within each of these attributes, several practices and lessons learned were identified. Some of the results are also worth investigating further in continued research:

  • Requirements formulation and management is considered to be critical. Well defined and clearly stated demands are key to taking life cycle issues into account due to the difficulty of incorporating life cycle related demands into the product. Nonetheless, balancing these demands against others is perceived to be difficult, and there is a clear need for tools, methods or models to support decision-making in this context.
  • The incorporation of new technology and services is another field of interest to industry. Organizational support and planning for technology insertion and new innovations and services into existing products and product lines are needed.
  • The organizational support to balance specialization and integration in a product development context, with a long-term focus
  • The effect of a transfer from delivering a product to delivering product and support services to the organization.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2004. , 59 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1083
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37229Local ID: 34046ISBN: 91-7373-725-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-37229DiVA: diva2:258078
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-03
List of papers
1. Life cycle value in product development: a case study in the transportation industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle value in product development: a case study in the transportation industry
2003 (English)In: DS 31: Proceedings of ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden: ICED'03 , 2003, 417-418 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several factors prevent enterprises from having a holistic perspective during product development. Important aspects include increased product complexity and significant uncertainty with regard to technology. For products with a long life cycle this is extremely important since development and life cycle costs are high. The combination of complexity of system design and the limits of individual human comprehension typically make it difficult to envision a best value solution.

In an attempt to encircle a more holistic perspective of value, the concept of Life Cycle Value has evolved within the Lean Aerospace Initiative, LAI. The implication of this is development of products incorporating life cycle and long-term focus including cost and performance and reliability factors. A similar perspective has evolved within the Lean Aircraft Research Program, LARP, in Sweden.

This paper contributes a new study of how life cycle aspects are taken into consideration in a large corporation in the transportation industry. The purpose of the research was to examine relative contributions to product development and determine factors that significantly promote the ability to consider the life cycle perspective. The results will be discussed with respect to tools, methods, requirements, metrics, leadership and other organizational factors, innovation, and enterprise relationships.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: ICED'03, 2003
Keyword
Life cycle, value, product development, transportation industry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36398 (URN)31246 (Local ID)1-904670-00-8 (ISBN)31246 (Archive number)31246 (OAI)
Conference
ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-03
2. Lifecycle value framework for tactical aircraft product development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifecycle value framework for tactical aircraft product development
2001 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to a dramatic reduction in defense procurement, the benchmark for developing new defense systems today is performance at an affordable cost. In an attempt to encircle a more holistic perspective of value, lifecycle value has evolved as a concept within the Lean Aerospace Initiative, LAI. The implication of this is development of products incorporating lifecycle and long-term focus instead of a shortsighted cost cutting focus. The interest to reduce total cost of ownership while still improving performance, availability, and sustainability, other dimensions taken into account within the lifecycle value approach, falls well within this context. Several factors prevent enterprises from having a holistic perspective during product development. Some important aspects are increased complexity of the products and significant technological uncertainty. The combination of complexity in system design and the limits of individual human comprehension typically prevent a best value solution to be envisioned. The purpose of this research was to examine relative contributions in product development and determine factors that significantly promote abilities to consider and achieve lifecycle value. This paper contributes a maturity matrix based on important practices and lessons learned through extensive interview based case studies of three tactical aircraft programs, including experiences from more than 100 interviews.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102199 (URN)
Conference
2001 Eleventh Annual International Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 1-5 July 2001
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03

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