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Evaluation of active materials designed for use in printable electrochromic polymer displays
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology Chalmers University of Technology.
Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology Chalmers University of Technology.
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, 2485-2492 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a step towards roll-to-roll production of polymer-based electrochromic displays on flexible substrates, nine thiophene-based polymers and copolymers designed to increase the contrast of displays based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-sulfonic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated with respect to their absorbance (contrast), switch speed, and ability to switch reversibly in a water-based electrolyte. The results of the evaluation, including cyclic voltammetry and optically visible absorption, provide a basis for understanding what an aqueous electrolyte electrochromic display requires in terms of oxidation potential and material stability, and the effect of chemical structure on the reversibility and speed of switching. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 515, no 4, 2485-2492 p.
Keyword [en]
Electrochromic display; Conjugated polymers; Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37443DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.07.149Local ID: 35830OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-37443DiVA: diva2:258292
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Organic Bioelectronics: Electrochemical Devices using Conjugated Polymers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Bioelectronics: Electrochemical Devices using Conjugated Polymers
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the Nobel Prize awarded discovery that some polymers or “plastics” can be made electronically conducting, the scientific field of organic electronics has arisen. The use of conducting polymers in electronic devices is appealing, because the materials can be processed from a liquid phase, much like ordinary non-conducting plastics. This gives the opportunity to utilize printing technologies and manufacture electronics roll-to-roll on flexible substrates, ultimately at very low costs. Even more intriguing are the possibilities to achieve completely novel functionalities in combination with the inherent compatibility of these materials with biological species. Therefore, organic electronics can be merged with biology and medicine to create organic bioelectronics, i.e. organic electronic devices that interact with biological samples directly or are used for biological applications.

This thesis aims at giving a background to the field of organic bioelectronics and focuses on how electrochemical devices may be utilized. An organic electronic wettability switch that can be used for lab-on-a-chip applications and control of cell growth as well as an electrochemical ion pump for cell communication and drug delivery are introduced. Furthermore, the underlying electrochemical structures that are the basis for the above mentioned devices, electrochemical display pixels etc. are discussed in detail. In summary, the work contributes to the understanding of electrochemical polymer electronics and, by presenting new bioelectronic inventions, builds a foundation for future projects and discoveries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1128
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-9679 (URN)978-91-85831-03-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-10-26, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-03 Created: 2007-10-03 Last updated: 2017-02-03
2. On the Surface of Conducting Polymers: Electrochemical Switching of Color and Wettability in Conjugated Polymer Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Surface of Conducting Polymers: Electrochemical Switching of Color and Wettability in Conjugated Polymer Devices
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the discovery in 1977 that conjugated polymers can be doped to achieve almost metallic electronic conduction, the research field of conducting polymers has escalated, with applications such as light emitting diodes, solar cells, thin film transistors, electrochemical transistors, logic circuits and sensors. The materials can be chemically modified during their synthesis in order to tailor the desired mechanical, electronic and optical properties of the final product. Polymers are also generally possible to process from solution, and regular roll-to-roll printing techniques can therefore be used for manufacturing of electronic components on flexible substrates like plastic or paper. On top of that, the nature of conjugated polymers enables the creation of devices with novel properties, which are not possible to achieve by using inorganic materials such as silicon.

The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on devices that utilize two rather unique properties of conducting polymers. Conducting polymers are generally electrochromic, i.e. they change color upon electrochemical oxidation or reduction, and can therefore be used as both conductor and pixel element in simple organic displays. As a result of the electrochemical reaction, some polymers also alter their surface properties and have proven to be suitable materials for organic electronic wettability switches. Control of surface wettability has applications in such diverse areas as printing techniques, micro-fluidics and biomaterials.

The aim of the thesis is to briefly describe the physical and chemical background of the materials used in organic electronic devices. Topics include molecular properties and doping of conjugated polymers, electrochromism, surface tension etc. This slightly theoretical part is followed by a more detailed explanation of device design, functionality and characterization. Finally, a glance into future projects will also be presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2005. 53 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1195
Keyword
Conjugated polymer, electrochemistry, surface energy, electrochromism, contact angle
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4268 (URN)91-85457-28-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-09-30, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitetet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
ISRN/Report code: LiU-TEK-LIC-2005:50Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
3. Electrochromism and over-oxidation in conjugated polymers: Improved color switching and a novel patterning approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromism and over-oxidation in conjugated polymers: Improved color switching and a novel patterning approach
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last 30 years a new research and technology field of organic electronic materials has grown thanks to a groundbreaking discovery made during the late 70’s. This new field is today a worldwide research effort focusing on exploring this new class of materials that also enable many new areas of electronics applications. In the organic electronics research field conducting organic molecules and polymers are synthesized and used in devices. The reason behind the success of conducting polymers is the flexibility to develop materials with new functionalities via clever chemical design and the possibility to use low-cost production techniques to manufacture devices.

This thesis reviews and describes different aspects of the organic electronics, here focusing on electrochromic displays; device improvements, the study of degradation and also patterning technology for rational manufacturing processing. The color contrast in electrochromic displays based on conjugated polymers was increased with approximately a factor of two by adding an extra electrochromic polymer. It was found that electrochemical over-oxidation (ECO) limits the flexibility in choosing desired electrochromic materials. ECO is one of the main degradation mechanisms in electrochromic displays. ECO is an efficient and fast process to permanently reduce the electronic conductivity in polythiophenes. From this, a novel patterning process was developed, in which the films of polythiophenes can be patterned through local and controlled deactivation of the conductivity. The ECO has been combined with different patterning tools to enable the use of existing printing tools for manufacturing. In combination with screen-printing, low-cost and high volume roll-to-roll patterning was demonstrated, while together with photolithography, patterning down to 2 µm can be achieved. Systematic studies have shown that conductivity contrasts beyond 107 can be achieved, which is enough for various simple electronic systems. To generate better understanding of the ECO phenomena the effect of pH on the over-oxidation characteristics was studied. The results suggest that a part of the mechanism for over-oxidation depends on the OH– concentration of the electrolyte used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2006. 31 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1237
Keyword
Conjugated polymers, Over-oxidation, Patterning, Electrochromism, PEDOT:PSS
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7478 (URN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (Local ID)91-85497-34-7 (ISBN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (Archive number)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (OAI)
Presentation
2006-03-02, TP2, Täppan, LiU Norrköping, Norrköping, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-04 Created: 2006-10-04 Last updated: 2017-02-03
4. Electrochemical Switching in Conducting Polymers – Printing Paper Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Switching in Conducting Polymers – Printing Paper Electronics
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last 30 years a new research and technology field of organic electronic materials has grown thanks to a groundbreaking discovery made during the late 70’s. This new field is today a worldwide research effort focusing on exploring a new class of materials that also enable many new areas of electronics applications. The reason behind the success of organic electronics is the flexibility to develop materials with new functionalities via clever chemical design and the possibility to use low‐cost production techniques to manufacture devices.

This thesis reports different aspects of electrochemical applications of organic electronics. We have shown that the color contrast in reflective and transmissive electrochromic displays can be almost doubled by adding an extra electrochromic polymer. The choice of electrochromic material was found to be limited by its electrochemical over‐oxidation (ECO) properties, which is one of the main degradation mechanisms found in displays. The irreversible and non‐conducting nature of over‐oxidized films encouraged us to use it in a novel patterning process in which polythiophene films can be patterned through local and controlled deactivation of the conductivity. ECO can be combined with various patterning tools such as screen printing for low‐cost roll‐to‐roll manufacturing or photolithography, which enables patterning of small features. Studies have shown that electronic conductivity contrasts beyond 107 can be achieved, which is enough for various simple electronic systems. To generate better understanding of the ECO phenomenon, the effect of pH on the over‐oxidation characteristics was studied. The results suggest that a part of the mechanism for over‐oxidation depends on the OH– concentration of the electrolyte used. Over‐oxidation has also been used in electrochemical loggers, where the temperature and time dependence of the propagation of an over‐oxidation front is used to monitor and record the temperature of a package.

Abstract [sv]

Dagligen kommer vi i kontakt med olika plastmaterial. Dessa har vanligtvis mycket dålig elektrisk ledningsförmåga och används oftast som isolerande material. Det finns dock en klass av plaster som är halvledande eller ledande. Sedan upptäckten av dessa material för mer än 30 år sedan har nya material och användningsområden utvecklats och nu börjar de första produkterna baserad på organisk elektronik komma ut på marknaden. En stor fördel med de ledande plasterna är att egenskaperna kan anpassas genom att ändra den kemiska strukturen. Man kan dessutom lösa upp dem och skapa ledande bläck, som sedan kan användas i vanliga tryckmaskiner. Detta gör det möjligt att på ett enkelt och billigt sätt tillverka elektronik på liknande sätt som till exempel tidningar trycks idag.

Den här avhandlingen behandlar en del av det nya området som berör elektrokemiska komponenter och några av dess tillämpningar. Fokus ligger främst på billig, tryckt elektronik. Bland annat presenteras ett sätt att fördubbla kontrasten för tryckta pappersdisplayer, ett nytt sätt att mönstra ledande plaster och elektrokemisk temperaturloggningsetikett som kan övervaka temperaturen för förpackningar under transport. Den mekanism som förstör ledningsförmågan vid höga spänningar har varit ett återkommande inslag i de studier som har genomförts här. Denna mekanism förstör komponenterna under drift men kan också användas för att ta bort ledningsförmågan som mönstringsmetod eller för att lagra information, permanent, i temperaturloggningsetiketten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1212
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15132 (URN)9789173938013 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-10, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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Tehrani, PaymanIsaksson, JoakimRobinson, Nathaniel DBerggren, Magnus

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