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Microdialysis shows metabolic effects in skin during fluid resuscitation in burn-injured patients
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
2006 (English)In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 10, no 6, R172- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Established fluid treatment formulas for burn injuries have been challenged as studies have shown the presence of tissue hypoxia during standard resuscitation. Such findings suggest monitoring at the tissue level. This study was performed in patients with major burn injuries to evaluate the microdialysis technique for the continuous assessment of skin metabolic changes during fluid resuscitation and up to four days postburn. Methods: We conducted an experimental study in patients with a burn injury, as represented by percentage of total body surface area burned (TBSA), of more than 25% in a university eight-bed burns intensive care unit serving about 3.5 million inhabitants. Six patients with a median TBSA percentage of 59% (range 33.5% to 90%) and nine healthy controls were examined by intracutaneous MD, in which recordings of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and urea were performed. Results: Blood glucose concentration peaked on day two at 9.8 mmol/l (6.8 to 14.0) (median and range) and gradually declined on days three and four, whereas skin glucose in MD continued to increase throughout the study period with maximum values on day four, 8.7 mmol/l (4.9 to 11.0). Controls had significantly lower skin glucose values compared with burn patients, 3.1 mmol/l (1.5 to 4.6) (p < 0.001). Lactate from burn patients was significantly higher than controls in both injured and uninjured skin (MD), 4.6 mmol/l (1.3 to 8.9) and 3.8 mmol/l (1.6 to 7.5), respectively (p < 0.01). The skin lactate/pyruvate ratio (MD) was significantly increased in burn patients on all days (p < 0.001). Skin glycerol (MD) was significantly increased at days three and four in burn patients compared with controls (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Despite a strategy that fulfilled conventional goals for resuscitation, there were increased lactate/pyruvate ratios, indicative of local acidosis. A corresponding finding was not recorded systemically. We conclude that MD is a promising tool for depicting local metabolic processes that are not fully appreciated when examined systemically. Because the local response in glucose, lactate, and pyruvate metabolism seems to differ from that recorded systemically, this technique may offer a new method of monitoring organs. © 2006 Samuelsson et al., licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: BioMed Central, 2006. Vol. 10, no 6, R172- p.
National Category
Clinical Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37628DOI: 10.1186/cc5124ISI: 000247718500020PubMedID: 17166287Local ID: 36806OAI: diva2:258477
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of burns and vasoactive drugs on human skin: Clinical and Experimental studies using microdialysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of burns and vasoactive drugs on human skin: Clinical and Experimental studies using microdialysis
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Patients who require critical care, including those with burns, are affected by a systemic inflammatory reaction, which at times has consequences such as multiple organ dysfunction and failure. It has become increasingly evident that other factors important in the development of organ dysfunction are disturbances at the tissue level, in the microcirculation. Such disturbances activate cascade systems including stress hormones, all of which have local effects on organ function.

Despite this knowledge, monitoring and treatment in critical illness today relies mainly on central haemodynamics and blood sampling.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique that enables us to study the chemical composition and changes in biochemistry in the extracellular, extravascular space in living tissues. Most of our current experience is from animal models, but the technique has also been used in humans and has become routine in many neurosurgical intensive care units to monitor brain biochemistry after severe injury. In skin, this experience is limited. During the first half of this thesis we studied the injured and uninjured skin of severely burned patients. The results show that there are severe local metabolic disturbances in both injured and uninjured skin. Most interesting is a sustained tissue acidosis, which is not detectable in systemic (blood) sampling. We also recorded considerable alterations in the glucose homeostasis locally in the skin, suggesting a cellular or mitochondrial dysfunction. In parallel, we noted increased tissue glycerol concentrations, which indicated appreciable traumainduced lipolysis.

We also examined serotonin kinetics in the same group of patients, as serotonin has been claimed to be a key mediator of the vasoplegia and permeability disturbances found in patients with burns. We have shown, for the first time in humans to our knowledge, that concentrations of serotonin in skin are increased tenfold, whereas blood and urine concentrations are just above normal. The findings support the need for local monitoring of substances with rapid local reabsorption, or degradation, or both. The results also indicate that serotonin may be important for the systemic response that characterises burn injuries.

In the second half of the thesis we evaluated the effects of microdosing in skin on metabolism and blood flow of vasoactive, mainly stress-response-related, drugs by the microdialysis system. The objectives were to isolate the local effects of the drugs to enable a better understanding of the complex relation between metabolic effects and effects induced by changes in local blood flow. In the first of these two studies we showed that by giving noradrenaline and nitroglycerine into the skin of healthy subjects we induced anticipated changes in skin metabolism and blood flow. The results suggest that the model may be used to examine vascular and metabolic effects induced locally by vasoactive compounds. Data from the last study indicate that conventional pharmacodynamic models (Emax) for time and dose response modelling may be successfully used to measure the vascular and metabolic response in this microdosing model.

We conclude that the microdialysis technique can be successfully used to monitor skin metabolism and iso late a mediator (serotonin) of the local skin response in burned patients. It was also feasible to develop a vascular model in skin based on microdialysis to deliver vasoactive substances locally to the skin of healthy volunteers. This model provided a framework in which the metabolic effects of hypoperfusion and reperfusion in skin tissues could be examined further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 83 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1195
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59519 (URN)978-91-7393-342-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-08, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2010-09-17 Created: 2010-09-17 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Samuelsson, AndersSteinvall, IngridSjöberg, Folke
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AnaesthesiologyFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Intensive Care UHLDepartment of Clinical and Experimental MedicineDivision of surgeryDepartment of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL
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Critical Care
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