liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Validation of the use of Pap-stained vaginal smears for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ålands Centralsjukhus, Finland.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Regionssjukhuset, Tromsö, Norway.
Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Malmö.
Show others and affiliations
2007 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, no 7, 809-813 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears (Pap smears) are used to screen for cervical cancer. Since there is a lack of consensus in published reports respecting the efficacy of Pap-stained smears in BV diagnostics, there is a need to validate their use for diagnosis of BV. Slides from the international BV00 workshop were Pap stained and independently analyzed by four investigators under a phase-contrast microscope. All workshop slides - whether Pap-stained, Gram-stained or rehydrated air-dried smears - were scored according to the same Nugent classification. The diagnostic accuracy of Pap smears for diagnosis of BV had a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.92, with a positive and negative predictive value of 0.84 and 0.93, respectively. The interobserver weighted kappa index was 0.86 for Pap-stained smears compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. Provided that the samples are taken from equivalent locations (the vaginal fornix) and analyzed according to the same scoring criteria, there is no discernable difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the three smear-staining methods. The Pap-stained vaginal smears can be used as a wholly adequate alternative to Gram-stained smears for BV diagnosis. © Apmis 2007.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 115, no 7, 809-813 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-38583DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2007.apm_607.xLocal ID: 44808OAI: diva2:259432
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2011-06-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bacterial Vaginosis: Diagnosis, Prevalence, and Treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacterial Vaginosis: Diagnosis, Prevalence, and Treatment
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a foul smelling vaginal discharge, loss or reduction of the normal vaginal Lactobacilli, and overgrowth of other anaerobic bacteria. Thus, it presents a formidable problem for clinicians as well as microbiologists researching its etiology, clinical course, treatment, and epidemiology. The present work focuses on the unresolved issues of the epidemiology and treatment of BV in order to provide valid methods for treatment studies of this condition and to describe the prevalence of BV in defined populations.

The first study validates the use of PAP-stained smears in the diagnosis of BV. The study assesses the methods of Amsel’s clinical criteria and Nugent criteria on Gram-stain smears, against Pap-stained smears and also validates different observers. The result shows that the PAP-staining of vaginal smears is a good method in BV diagnosis; the kappa value is 0.86 (interobserver weighted kappa index) compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. This enables population based studies on archived PAP-stained smears from the screening of cervical cancer.

In the second study, we use the knowledge gained from study one to investigate the prevalence of BV in a cohort from the population of Åland. The prevalences of BV on the Åland Islands were: 15.6 %, 11.9 %, 8.7 %, and 8.6% in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008, respectively. This means that the prevalence of BV decreased between1993-2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%. The confidence intervals are not overlapping, thus indicating a significant decrease in prevalence from 1993 to 2008.

The third study is a prospective, double-blind placebo controlled treatment study of BV. After conventional treatment with clindamycin, the patients were treated with adjuvant treatment of Lactobacilli-loaded tampons or placebo. The study showed no differences between the treatment and the placebo group, indicating that the tampon does not work at all. There are a variety of possible explanations for the result, which are analyzed in this thesis.

The fourth study aimed to evaluate whether clindamycin is retained for a long time in the vaginal mucosa, thus disturbing the Lactobacilli in an attempt to reimplant Lactobacilli in the probiotic treatment studies. In conventional treatment, it is also useful to know whether clindamycin is retained, especially when considering the pressure from antibiotics on the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. In the study, we found that the clindamycin disappears rapidly.

Conclusion: BV research requires effort from many different scientific disciplines and the riddle of this condition and its treatment can only be resolved by concerted actions in research and treatment. The vision for the future includes, among other factors, better molecular biology based diagnostic tools, and knowledge of population based bacterial floras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 47 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1246
Bacterial vaginosis, prevalence, diagnosis, PAP-smear, probiotic treatment, clindamycin
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68812 (URN)978-91-7393-178-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-31, Berzeliussalen, Ingång 65, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2011-08-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Eriksson, KForsum, UrbanBjörnerem, APlatz-Christensen, JJLarsson, Per-Göran
By organisation
Faculty of Health SciencesClinical MicrobiologyDepartment of Clinical MicrobiologyGender and Medicine
In the same journal
Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS)
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 28 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link