Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant
2007 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 373, no 2-3, 447-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 373, no 2-3, 447-455 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39894DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.11.028Local ID: 51633OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-39894DiVA: diva2:260743