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Analysing strategic energy-related investments in process industries: applied studies at a pulp and board mill
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The potential to reduce energy demand in industrial applications is often substantiaL Since energy cost represents a considerable share of the value added in several categories of process industries, a great potential exists for cutting costs through investment, for instance in energy efficiency improvements. However, industrial energy systems form complex relations not only within the industrial unit, but also in the interaction with their surroundings. Consequently, issues such as energy prices and governmental regulations influence the systems to varying extents. At the moment environmental issues, as manifested in the Kyoto agreement, and the new common European electricity market are in focus and are likely to influence the different boundary conditions that face European industries. Therefore, when major investments are to take place, changes in such boundary conditions need to be considered.

Analysing potential investments in industrial energy systems require advanced methods that manage these complex relations and interactions and concurrently consider technical, economic and environmental issues. The purpose of the thesis is to develop and co-ordinate such methods and apply them to investments in an existing process industry. A method based on optimisation is used as the main tool for analysis. Other methods are applied as complements, for example to manage different aggregation levels and to facilitate sensitivity analyses.

A pulp and board mill in central Sweden is used as a case study, where investments and changes in the utility systems and the main processes are analysed. These investments are subject to changes in boundary conditions and other mill-specific changes, showing both potentially interesting investments, and also the extensive influence of different boundary conditions. It is also shown that the methods used are appropriate for the purpose at hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2002. , 96 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 791
Keyword [en]
MIND, Industrial energy systems, Investment, pulp and paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39957Local ID: 51863ISBN: 91-7373-476-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-39957DiVA: diva2:260806
Public defence
2002-12-11, Planck's hörsal, Fysikhuset, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
List of papers
1. Co-ordination of pinch technology and the MIND method: applied to a Swedish board mill
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-ordination of pinch technology and the MIND method: applied to a Swedish board mill
2002 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 22, no 2, 133-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By combining the pinch technology and the MIND method, it is possible to identify beneficial and energy-efficient measures in a complex industrial energy system. By tackling a problem on the two different aggregation levels, the result is thoroughly evaluated and durable measures are achieved. The strength of the combination of methods is elucidated in a case study where a Scandinavian pulp and paper mill is analysed. The studied problem concerns pre-evaporation of effluents in a board mill using excess heat. Different alternatives are evaluated, taking into account economic, technical and practicable constraints. The results show that it is cost-effective to pre-evaporate the effluent using excess heat in the studied mill.

Keyword
Effluent, Energy, Energy efficiency, Evaporation, Excess heat, Industrial energy system, MIND, Optimisation, Pinch technology, Process integration, Pulp and paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46976 (URN)10.1016/S1359-4311(01)00080-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Sensitivity analysis of investments in the pulp and paper industry: on investments in the chemical recovery cycle at a board mill
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitivity analysis of investments in the pulp and paper industry: on investments in the chemical recovery cycle at a board mill
2002 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 26, no 14, 1253-1267 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the pulp and paper industry, energy costs represents a relatively large proportion of the value of production. When investing in new equipment, considerations concerning boundary conditions, such as electricity and oil prices, are therefore of great importance. A vital requirement is the identification of other key parameters influencing production costs as well as possible interaction between these parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is accomplished by using an optimization model that minimizes the system cost combined with a systematic approach involving a statistical method.

The paper analyses the possibilities of investing in a new chemical recovery cycle, including a new recovery boiler and evaporation plant, at a Swedish board mill. The study includes a survey of future changes, together with forecasts of boundary conditions, such as changes in the price of electricity and oil. Interactions between different parameters are also examined.

Keyword
optimization, energy efficiency, industrial energy system, pulp and paper, interaction, factorial design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39955 (URN)10.1002/er.848 (DOI)51861 (Local ID)51861 (Archive number)51861 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
3. A systems approach to the reduction of oil demand in a Swedish board mill
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems approach to the reduction of oil demand in a Swedish board mill
2004 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 29, no 1, 103-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility of reducing oil demand in the board mill at Skoghall, operated by Stora Enso, is analysed from a systems perspective. Identification of different key factors influencing the potential for reducing oil demand includes measures within the mill, e.g. steam reduction measures, and boundary conditions, such as electricity prices. Different key factors influence each other to different extents, indicating that an analysis concerning interactions between the different factors is also vital. A survey of these factors influencing oil demand has been carried out and a sensitivity analysis, including a factorial design method, has been applied to the subject.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22917 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2003.08.003 (DOI)2272 (Local ID)2272 (Archive number)2272 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
4. Cost-efficient CO2-reduction in the pulp and paper industry: a case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-efficient CO2-reduction in the pulp and paper industry: a case study
2002 (English)In: International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, 2002, Porto, Portugal: FEUP , 2002, EES58- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is generally accepted that human activities have a large influence on global climate. In order to minimize human impact on global warming, regulations and agreements may be introduced for all CO2‑generating sectors. Therefore, measures to reduce CO2-emissions will be of importance to the industrial sector. Strategic decisions and long-term thinking are needed to comply with the regulations and to fulfil the agreements.

The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive sector with relatively large potentials to accomplish energy efficiency measures that result in reduction of CO2-emissions. To settle the cost-effectiveness for each measure a number of system parameters have to be considered, such as investment costs, boundary conditions and reference systems.

This paper presents two methods, pinch technology and the MIND method. These methods are used for analysis of industrial energy systems considering different parameters and aspects. Pinch technology is used for thermodynamic and economic evaluation of process integration possibilities and the MIND method is used for strategic evaluation of different energy efficiency measures. Foundation for long-term decision-making can be obtained by co-ordinating the results from the two methods. In this paper, cost-effectiveness has been determined for different energy efficiency measures. The measures are non-conventional evaporation and heat pumping. The case studied is from a Swedish board mill. Economic potentials and consequences for these CO2-reducing measures are discussed from both an industrial and a societal perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Porto, Portugal: FEUP, 2002
Keyword
MIND, Pinch, Industrial energy systems, CO2, pulp and paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39952 (URN)51858 (Local ID)51858 (Archive number)51858 (OAI)
Conference
1st International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, 12-14 June 2002, Porto, Portugal
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
5. Increasing the use of wood fuel in a pulp and paper mill: investment opportunity and external costs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing the use of wood fuel in a pulp and paper mill: investment opportunity and external costs
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th Biennal Bioenergy Conference, 2002, 174- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wood fuel is a by-product produced in large quantities in the pulp and paper industry. It is a relatively cheap energy carrier that can be used to satisfy the internal demand for heat and electricity. Furthermore, it can replace the use of fossil fuels and thereby reduce emissions of CO2 and the related external costs. The aim of this study is to analyze the economics of using more wood fuel for energy purposes, as well as the economics of using wood fiber sludge as a fuel instead of delivering it to landfills. A pulp and paper mill in Sweden is analyzed and the study focuses on providing a demand for heat and electricity. An energy system model based on mixed integer linear programming is used to perform the study. The analysis illustrates the investment opportunity of a new boiler fuelled with bark and sludge. A business economic approach is compared with a socio-economic approach, in which some external costs are considered. The result of the comparison is that the investment opportunity for a wood fuel-boiler is greater when the external cost of production is considered. Furthermore, the amount of emissions associated with the energy conversion and related external costs is estimated for the different cases.

Keyword
optimization, industrial energy system, pulp and paper, investment, external costs, bioenergy
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39956 (URN)51862 (Local ID)51862 (Archive number)51862 (OAI)
Conference
10th Biennal Bioenergy Conference, Boise, Idaho USA, 22-26 September
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11
6. A pulp and paper mill in the deregulated electricity market: strategies for electricity production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pulp and paper mill in the deregulated electricity market: strategies for electricity production
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The deregulated electricity market has changed the prerequisites for the different actors in the market, both electricity producing companies and electricity purchasers. Companies may purchase electricity directly on the spot market and/ or use different derivatives, such as forwards and futures, as hedging instruments. There are various strategies for acting in the market and this paper explores alternative strategies for a Swedish board mill where hedging contracts to secure the price of electricity cover part of the electricity demand. The remaining demand is purchased on the spot market or produced on site. The back-pressure turbines on site are subject to possible changes in order to determine whether it is profitable to make additional investments aimed at reducing costs.

Producing electricity close to the demand is a favourable alternative due to reduced losses in the grid and a lesser risk of power failure. Using back-pressure turbines on site meets these requirements and may also help to reduce the risk of power shortages. In certain situations, offering electricity production when there is a lack of electric power in the national grid is a possible alternative aimed at increasing income.

The result shows that the choice of hedging strategy strongly influences the possibility of reducing costs. It is also shown that the different hedging strategies depend on factors such as the amount of electricity produced on site and the spot price.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88511 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-11 Created: 2013-02-11 Last updated: 2013-02-11
7. Industry and the energy market - optimal choice of measures using the MIND method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industry and the energy market - optimal choice of measures using the MIND method
2002 (English)In: CRIS Conference on Power Systems and Communications Infrastructures for the future, 2002, China: CRIS, International Institute for Critical Infrastructures , 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

No abstract available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
China: CRIS, International Institute for Critical Infrastructures, 2002
Keyword
MIND, Industrial energy systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39960 (URN)51866 (Local ID)51866 (Archive number)51866 (OAI)
Conference
Power Systems and Communication Systems Infrastructures for the Future International Conference (CRIS'2002) September 23-27, 2002, Beijing, China
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-02-11

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