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Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
KI, Stockholm.
National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
2007 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 169, no 2-3, 101-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Compared with their contemporaries, individuals abusing illicit drugs suffer a higher risk of premature death. In Sweden, a simple protocol for registration of fatalities among abusers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, or other substances, has been used by the forensic pathologists since 2001. This routine was introduced to allow for an evaluation of the cause and manner of death, and patterns of abuse among different groups of abusers. We explored the data on drug abusers (i.e. abusers of illicit drugs) subjected to a forensic autopsy 2002-2003. The Swedish forensic pathologists examined 10,273 dead victims during the study period and 7% (743/10,273) of the cases were classified as drug abusers. Toxicological analyses were carried out in 99% (736/743) and illicit drugs were detected in 70% (514/736) of these. On average, 3.8 substances (legal or illegal) were found per case. The most common substances were ethanol and morphine, detected in 43 and 35% of the cases, respectively. When exploring the importance of the different substances for the cause of death, we found that the detection of some substances, such as fentanyl and morphine, strongly indicated a poisoning, whereas certain other substances, such as benzodiazepines more often were incidental findings. In total, 50% (372/743) died of poisoning, whereas only 22% (161/743) died of natural causes. Death was considered to be directly or indirectly due to drug abuse in 47% (346/743), whereas evidence of drug abuse was an incidental finding in 21% (153/743) or based on case history alone in 33% (244/743). We believe that this strategy to prospectively categorize deaths among drug addicts constitutes a simple means of standardizing the surveillance of the death toll among drug addicts that could allow for comparisons over time and between countries. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 169, no 2-3, 101-107 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40889DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.08.002Local ID: 54469OAI: diva2:261738
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2014-01-13

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Jönsson, AnnaHolmgren, PerAhlner, Johan
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Clinical PharmacologyFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology
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