Goods in the Anthroposphere as a Metal Emission Source: A Case Study of Stockholm, Sweden
2001 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 213-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The aim of this study was to quantify the diffuse emissions during use of metal containinggoods in the capital of Sweden, Stockholm. The following metals were studied: Cadmium (Cd),Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). A major part ofthe metals are found in a protected environment where degrading processes like corrosion are mostlimited. However, during the lifetime of some goods the metal release to the environment is significant.The quantitatively most dominant emissions were found for Cu and Zn. The tap water system androofs/fronts (Cu) represent goods with large exposed areas but with relatively small release rates perunit. In contrast, brake linings, aerial lines and electrical grounding (Cu) and tyres, brake linings andchemicals (Zn) are all goods with high release rates but mostly limited exposed stocks. High yearlyemissions are also found for Pb, ammunition and sinkers dominate the calculated emissions totally.For Cr and Ni, stainless steel represent the major part of the stocks, but corrosion was estimated togive only a minor contribution to the emissions. Potential emission sources, i.e. stabilisers, pigmentsand plated goods dominate the exposed Cd stock. These emissions were not quantified due to lackof data. Hg is currently phased out, but one major source of emission, i.e. the use of amalgam, willbe continuously significant for several decades. The importance of the traffic sector is obvious. Theemissions from brake linings (Cu, Zn and Pb), tyres (Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni) and asphalt wear (Cu, Zn,Cr, Ni and Pb) are all of large importance for the total emission from respectively metal.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Vol. 1, no 3-4, 213-227 p.
emission, goods, heavy metals, Substance Flow Analysis, Sweden, urban areas
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43203DOI: 10.1023/A:1017516523915Local ID: 72940OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-43203DiVA: diva2:264062