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Goods in the Anthroposphere as a Metal Emission Source: A Case Study of Stockholm, Sweden
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Kalmar University.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2001 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 213-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to quantify the diffuse emissions during use of metal containinggoods in the capital of Sweden, Stockholm. The following metals were studied: Cadmium (Cd),Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). A major part ofthe metals are found in a protected environment where degrading processes like corrosion are mostlimited. However, during the lifetime of some goods the metal release to the environment is significant.The quantitatively most dominant emissions were found for Cu and Zn. The tap water system androofs/fronts (Cu) represent goods with large exposed areas but with relatively small release rates perunit. In contrast, brake linings, aerial lines and electrical grounding (Cu) and tyres, brake linings andchemicals (Zn) are all goods with high release rates but mostly limited exposed stocks. High yearlyemissions are also found for Pb, ammunition and sinkers dominate the calculated emissions totally.For Cr and Ni, stainless steel represent the major part of the stocks, but corrosion was estimated togive only a minor contribution to the emissions. Potential emission sources, i.e. stabilisers, pigmentsand plated goods dominate the exposed Cd stock. These emissions were not quantified due to lackof data. Hg is currently phased out, but one major source of emission, i.e. the use of amalgam, willbe continuously significant for several decades. The importance of the traffic sector is obvious. Theemissions from brake linings (Cu, Zn and Pb), tyres (Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni) and asphalt wear (Cu, Zn,Cr, Ni and Pb) are all of large importance for the total emission from respectively metal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Vol. 1, no 3-4, 213-227 p.
Keyword [en]
emission, goods, heavy metals, Substance Flow Analysis, Sweden, urban areas
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43203DOI: 10.1023/A:1017516523915Local ID: 72940OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-43203DiVA: diva2:264062
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Levels of heavy metals in different media are high today, both in Stockholm and other urban areas. Where do the metals come from? Production emissions and point sources are not the answer, since earlier research has shown that production emissions are lower than emission from goods during use (the diffuse emission). Hence, in order to understand the flow of different metals to different recipients it is necessary to understand the use of heavy metals in goods. This thesis quantifies the use of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in goods in Stockholm, Sweden. It also quantifies the diffuse emission from the goods.

The results of this thesis show that the stock of heavy metals in goods in Stockholm is large. Per capita, it has been estimated to about:170 kg Cu, 70 kg Pb, 40 kg Zn, 8 kg Cr, 4 kg Ni, 0.2 kg Cd and finally 0.01 kg Hg. Accumulation probably still continues, with the exception of Hg and possibly Cd. The accumulation rates have not been calculated due to lack of reliable recycling data.

The waste flow is large, hundreds of tons for Cu, Zn and Pb, for example. The majority of the goods are used in protected environments, hence the diffuse emission is negligible. Other goods are used in exposed environments and the diffuse emission is rather large.

It is also shown that diffuse emission from goods is the main source of heavy metals to the wastewater treatment plant Henriksdal in Stockholm. The diffuse sources are not efficiently regulated in the Environmental Code in Sweden, which makes it difficult for the water company (and others) to decrease diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 2003. 46 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 270
Keyword
Heavy metais, urban areas, Substance flow analysis, inflow, stock, outflow, diffuse emisson, waste, wastewater treatment plant, legislation, Tungmetaller, miljöaspekter
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29572 (URN)14947 (Local ID)91-7373-634-1 (ISBN)14947 (Archive number)14947 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-04-29, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-09-01Bibliographically approved

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Sörme, LouiseLohm, Ulrik

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