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Concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in blood samples from apprehended drivers in Sweden
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry.
Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
2008 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 177, no 2-3, 133-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) were determined in blood samples from people arrested in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Venous blood or urine if available, was subjected to a broad toxicological screening analysis for cannabis, cocaine metabolite, amphetamines, opiates and the major benzodiazepines. Verification and quantitative analysis of cocaine and BZE in blood was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.02 mg/L for both substances. Over the study period 26,567 blood samples were analyzed and cocaine and/or BZE were verified in 795 cases (3%). The motorists using cocaine were predominantly men (>96%) with an average age of 28.3 ± 7.1 years (±standard deviation, S.D.). The concentration of cocaine was below LOQ in 574 cases although BZE was determined at mean, median and highest concentrations of 0.19 mg/L, 0.12 mg/L and 1.3 mg/L, respectively. In 221 cases, cocaine and BZE were together in the blood samples at mean and (median) concentrations of 0.076 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.859 mg/L (0.70 mg/L), respectively. The concentrations of BZE were always higher than the parent drug, mean BZE/cocaine ratio 14.2 (median 10.9) range 1-55. Cocaine and BZE were the only psychoactive substances reported in N = 61 cases at mean (median) and highest concentrations of 0.095 (0.07) and 0.5 mg/L for cocaine and 1.01 (0.70) and 3.1 mg/L for BZE. Typical signs of drug influence noted by the arresting police officers included bloodshot and glossy eyes, agitation, difficulty in sitting still and incoherent speech. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 177, no 2-3, 133-139 p.
Keyword [en]
Adult Age Distribution Automobile Driving/*legislation & jurisprudence Cocaine/*analogs & derivatives/*blood Cocaine-Related Disorders/diagnosis Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/*blood Female Forensic Toxicology Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Humans Male
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43364DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.11.009Local ID: 73646OAI: diva2:264223
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-03-21

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