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Sources of heavy metals in urban wastewater in Stockholm
Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
Stockholm Water Company, S-106 36 Stockholm, Sweden.
2002 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 298, no 1-3, 131-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sources of heavy metals to a wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Sources can be actual goods, e.g. runoff from roofs, wear of tires, food, or activities, e.g. large enterprises, car washes. The sources were identified by knowing the metals content in various goods and the emissions from goods to sewage or stormwater. The sources of sewage water and stormwater were categorized to enable comparison with other research and measurements. The categories were households, drainage water, businesses, pipe sediment (all transported in sewage water), atmospheric deposition, traffic, building materials and pipe sediment (transported in stormwater). Results show that it was possible to track the sources of heavy metals for some metals such as Cu and Zn (110 and 100% found, respectively) as well as Ni and Hg (70% found). Other metals sources are still poorly understood or underestimated (Cd 60%, Pb 50%, Cr 20% known). The largest sources of Cu were tap water and roofs. For Zn the largest sources were galvanized material and car washes. In the case of Ni, the largest sources were chemicals used in the WTP and drinking water itself. And finally, for Hg the most dominant emission source was the amalgam in teeth. For Pb, Cr and Cd, where sources were more poorly understood, the largest contributors for all were car washes. Estimated results of sources from this study were compared with previously done measurements. The comparison shows that measured contribution from households is higher than that estimated (except Hg), leading to the conclusion that the sources of sewage water from households are still poorly understood or that known sources are underestimated. In the case of stormwater, the estimated contributions are rather well in agreement with measured contributions, although uncertainties are large for both estimations and measurements. Existing pipe sediments in the plumbing system, which release Hg and Pb, could be one explanation for the missing amount of these metals. Large enterprises were found to make a very small contribution, 4% or less for all metals studied. Smaller enterprises (with the exception of car washes) have been shown to make a small contribution in another city, the contribution in this case study is still unknown. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 298, no 1-3, 131-145 p.
Keyword [en]
Goods, Heavy metals, Households, Sewage water, Sources, Stormwater, Traffic, Wastewater treatment plant
National Category
Social Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46888DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00197-3OAI: diva2:267784
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-06-26
In thesis
1. Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban heavy metals: Stocks and flows
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Levels of heavy metals in different media are high today, both in Stockholm and other urban areas. Where do the metals come from? Production emissions and point sources are not the answer, since earlier research has shown that production emissions are lower than emission from goods during use (the diffuse emission). Hence, in order to understand the flow of different metals to different recipients it is necessary to understand the use of heavy metals in goods. This thesis quantifies the use of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in goods in Stockholm, Sweden. It also quantifies the diffuse emission from the goods.

The results of this thesis show that the stock of heavy metals in goods in Stockholm is large. Per capita, it has been estimated to about:170 kg Cu, 70 kg Pb, 40 kg Zn, 8 kg Cr, 4 kg Ni, 0.2 kg Cd and finally 0.01 kg Hg. Accumulation probably still continues, with the exception of Hg and possibly Cd. The accumulation rates have not been calculated due to lack of reliable recycling data.

The waste flow is large, hundreds of tons for Cu, Zn and Pb, for example. The majority of the goods are used in protected environments, hence the diffuse emission is negligible. Other goods are used in exposed environments and the diffuse emission is rather large.

It is also shown that diffuse emission from goods is the main source of heavy metals to the wastewater treatment plant Henriksdal in Stockholm. The diffuse sources are not efficiently regulated in the Environmental Code in Sweden, which makes it difficult for the water company (and others) to decrease diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 2003. 46 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 270
Heavy metais, urban areas, Substance flow analysis, inflow, stock, outflow, diffuse emisson, waste, wastewater treatment plant, legislation, Tungmetaller, miljöaspekter
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29572 (URN)14947 (Local ID)91-7373-634-1 (ISBN)14947 (Archive number)14947 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-04-29, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-09-01Bibliographically approved

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Sörme, Louise
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