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Phasing out cadmium and lead: Emissions and sediment loads in an urban area
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Kalmar University, Sweden.
2002 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 292, no 1-2, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines how fluxes in the aquatic environment reflect the reduced use of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Stockholm, Sweden, between 1975 and 1995. The sediment deposition of Cd and Pb in the waters around Stockholm was investigated using laminated sediment cores, which facilitated reconstructions of historical annual metal deposition to the sediments. The resulting reconstructions were compared to independent estimations of the emissions to the aquatic environment during the phase-out period. The loads of Cd and Pb from sewage treatment plants, storm water and in atmospheric deposition were studied using literature data. The data set indicates a reduced load of Cd and Pb on the aquatic surroundings of Stockholm. The reduction is, however, not as pronounced in the sediment deposition as in the calculated emissions. This indicates that emissions may be delayed on their way to the sediments or that there are other sources, e.g. resuspension of older sediments. It is therefore argued that sediment investigations are an essential component in environmental monitoring, in order to get a complete picture of the metal fluxes to and in the environment in urban areas. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 292, no 1-2, 91-100 p.
Keyword [en]
Cd, Emissions, Pb, Reconstructions, Sediments, Stockholm
National Category
Social Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46970DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00029-3OAI: diva2:267866
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The trace of metals: Use, emissions and sediment load of urban heavy metals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The trace of metals: Use, emissions and sediment load of urban heavy metals
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban areas have been considered potential ecological hot spots for metal pollution. This is the result of three trends. First, the 20th century saw a rapid increase in the use of many materials, including metals, in the industrialized world. Second, urbanization has made towns and cities areas nodes of material flows. Third, emissions from production activities have received considerable attention and regulation, but emissions via consumption have largely been ignored, so for several metals they have become more important than emissions from production activities. These emissions largely occur from centres of population. Thus, metal pollutionin urban areas is a subject of increasing importance.

Whereas most studies of environmental pollution have dealt with pollutants in the environment, a new research field has evolved that is devoted to earlier identification of the fluxes that cause pollution. A tool in this work is material flux analysis. This thesis presents an extendedmaterial flux analysis of five heavy metals, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. This approach combines an analysis of the metal fluxes within the urban system, with an investigation of sediments, which aims at identifying the current sediment load of metals, and to reconstruct the historical load by using dated sediment cores.

The results indicate that the use of Cd, Hg and Pb have been reduced during the last three decades. Thus emissions to the aquatic environment have been substantially reduced. However, metal concentrations in sediments from central Stockholm, as well as fluxes of metals to the sediments, arc highly elevated compared to other areas. Budget comparisons indicate that the area investigated in and around Stockholm has changed from a positive balance, indicating a net export of Cd, Hg and Pb to the Baltic in the 1970s, to a negative balance, indicating thatthere are unidentified sources of these metals. For Cu, the budget is approximately balanced, and for Zn the area seems to be an exporter to the Baltic Sea.

It is argued that the unbalanced budgets of Cd, Hg and Pb highlight the importance of integrated approaches, and of including sediment loads in environmental monitoring. The results also stress the need for a better understanding of the urban biogeochemistry of heavy metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2000. 64 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 221
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35393 (URN)26549 (Local ID)91-7219-880-X (ISBN)26549 (Archive number)26549 (OAI)
Public defence
2000-12-01, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved

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Jonsson, Arne
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