Xenophones: An investigation of phone set expansion in Swedish and implications for speech recognition and speech synthesis
2001 (English)In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, Vol. 35, no 1-2, 81-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In recent years, both automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech (TTS) conversion systems have attained quality levels that allow inclusion in everyday applications. One remaining problem to be solved in both these types of applications is that alleged phone inventories of specific languages are commonly expanded with phones from other languages, a problem that becomes more acute in an increasingly internationalized world where multilingual automatic speech-based services are a desideratum. This paper investigates the nature of phone set expansion in Swedish. The status of these phones is discussed, and since such added phones do not have a phonemic (or allophonic) function, the term 'xenophones' is suggested. The analysis is based on a production study involving 491 subjects, and the observed xenophonic expansion is described in terms of three categories along the "awareness" and the "fidelity" dimensions. The results show that very few subjects resort to full rephonematization and that xenophonic expansion is the rule, although there is an uneven distribution depending on particular phones, spanning from phones produced by most subjects, to phones produced by almost no subjects. Of the possible explanatory factors analyzed - regional background, gender, age and educational level - the latter is by far the most important. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2001. Vol. 35, no 1-2, 81-102 p.
Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Multi-linguality, Phonetic expansion, Phonology, Second language acquisition (SLA), Text-to-speech conversion (TTS), Xenophones
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47297DOI: 10.1016/S0167-6393(00)00097-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-47297DiVA: diva2:268193