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Vaccines: A rapidly evolving technology - Are the hurdles being addressed?
Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology.
St. George's Hospital, University of London, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 0QT, United Kingdom.
Global Clinical Development Unit - Oncology, Merck-Serono KGaA, Frankfurterstrasse 250, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
Division Medical Biotechnology, Paul-Ehrlich Institute, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, D-63225 Langen, Germany.
2007 (English)In: European Journal of Cancer, Supplement, ISSN 1359-6349, Vol. 5, no 9, 29-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vaccination usually works in infectious disease, why not in Cancer? Differences in the potency of microbial and cancer antigens, poor initiation of an immune response due to inadequate expression of tumour associated antigens, weak antigens or tolerance induction and local immune suppression were considered. There is a big difference between a therapeutic and a prophylactic vaccine. The opinion of the expert group was that an improved therapeutic efficacy can hardly be expected by further variation of types of vaccines, schedules, routes of administration and adjuvants alone. A major hurdle for developing therapeutic cancer vaccines is the need to effectively monitor the immune response and to be able to use this in an adaptive trial approach. End-points of assessment should be different from standard treatments as complete response or partial responses are usually low, unless combined with other therapies. In order to focus resources to overcome the hurdles of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cancer vaccines the Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group, representing academia and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries has in a consensus process defined 'A clinical development paradigm for cancer vaccines and related biologics'. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 5, no 9, 29-32 p.
Keyword [en]
Enhancing therapeutic efficacy, Escape mechanisms, Therapeutic/prophylactic cancer vaccines
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47555DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcsup.2007.09.004OAI: diva2:268451
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-01-06

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