Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoemission measurements of indium tin oxide work function: a comparison
2000 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 111, 311-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We report a comparison of the work functions of thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO), carried out by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and by measurements of the contact potential difference with respect to a gold reference electrode (Kelvin probe (KP) method). We investigated commercially available ITOs both 'as-received', and after certain surface treatments, such as oxygen plasma. First, we find measurable discrepancies between KP values measured with three different instruments, and between the KP and the UPS values. Secondly, and unexpectedly, we find that the KP, although more sensitive than UPS, does not detect certain differences between ITOs with different surface treatments. We discuss the results in view of the different environments in which the measurements are carried out (UHV for the UPS and air/Ar for the Kelvin method), of the effects which may be induced by the high-energy photon irradiation in the UPS measurement, and of the stability of the gold probe work function in gas ambient. We conclude that UPS is better-suited for absolute work function determination, although KP remains a convenient and inexpensive tool for fast screening of contact potential differences.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 111, 311-314 p.
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47642DOI: 10.1016/S0379-6779(99)00354-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-47642DiVA: diva2:268538