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Effect of annealing on the structure and hardness of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings produced by pulse plating
Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, Natl. Tech. Univ. Athens, 157 80 Z., Athens, Greece.
Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, Natl. Tech. Univ. Athens, 157 80 Z., Athens, Greece.
Industrial Microelectronics Center, 581 83, Linkoping, Sweden.
Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Lyngby, Denmark.
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2000 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 279, no 1-2, 217-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings were deposited on copper foils by pulse plating, using a rotating cylinder electrode. They consisted of layers of high (Ni-5 wt.% P-45 wt.% W) and low (Ni-8 wt.% P-15 wt.% W) W content. The wavelengths studied were 8, 40 and 400 nm and the total thickness of the coatings was approximately 25 µm. The multilayered coatings were annealed in the temperature range between 200 and 800°C and the effect of annealing on their structure was studied by using X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction facility, and differential thermal analysis. The initially amorphous multilayered coatings crystallise in steps as the annealing temperature increases (first the low-W crystallise layers and then the high-W layers), and the layered structure is lost around 600°C. The main crystalline phases formed during annealing are Ni-W solid solution and Ni3P. The wavelength of the coatings seems to affect the onset temperature of the crystallisation processes. The hardness of the coatings initially increases reaching a maximum in the 500-600°C range, and then decreases as the annealing temperature increases. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings were deposited on copper foils by pulse plating, using a rotating cylinder electrode. They consisted of layers of high (Ni-5 wt.% P-45 wt.% W) and low (Ni-8 wt.% P-15 wt.% W) W content. The wavelengths studied were 8, 40 and 400 nm and the total thickness of the coatings was approximately 25 µm. The multilayered coatings were annealed in the temperature range between 200 and 800°C and the effect of annealing on their structure was studied by using X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction facility, and differential thermal analysis. The initially amorphous multilayered coatings crystallise in steps as the annealing temperature increases (first the low-W crystallise layers and then the high-W layers), and the layered structure is lost around 600°C. The main crystalline phases formed during annealing are Ni-W solid solution and Ni3P. The wavelength of the coatings seems to affect the onset temperature of the crystallisation processes. The hardness of the coatings initially increases reaching a maximum in the 500-600°C range, and then decreases as the annealing temperature increases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 279, no 1-2, 217-230 p.
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Natural Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47686DOI: 10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00583-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-47686DiVA: diva2:268582
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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