Design, plasma studies, and ion assisted thin film growth in an unbalanced dual target magnetron sputtering system with a solenoid coil
2000 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, Vol. 56, no 2, 107-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
An original design and solution to the problem of magnetic field interactions in a vacuum chamber between two unbalanced magnetron sputtering sources and a solenoid coil serving to increase plasma density in near substrate position, is presented. By changing the solenoid coil current strength and direction, plasma growth conditions in an argon discharge and Ti-magnetron cathodes were found to vary in a broad region. Langmuir probe analysis shows that an increase in the coil current from 0 to 6 A caused plasma and substrate floating potentials to change from -7 to -30 V and from +1 to -10 V, respectively, as well as increasing the ion densities to a biased substrate from 0.2 to 5.2 mA cm-2 for each of the magnetrons. By using a ferro-powder magnetic field model, as well as finite element method analysis, we demonstrate the interference of the three magnetic fields - those of the two magnetrons and the solenoid coil. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure and morphology of Ti-films grown under different ion bombardment conditions. At low Ar-ion-to-Ti-atom arrival rate ratios, Jion/Jn to approximately 1.5, at the substrate, variations of the ion energy, Eion, from 8 to 70 eV has only a minor effect on the microstructure and film preferred crystallographic orientation, resulting in an open/porous structure with defect-rich grains. At a higher Jion/Jn value of approximately 20, films with a well-defined dense structure were deposited at ion energies of 80 eV. The increase in ion flux also resulted in changes of the Ti film preferred orientation, from an (0 0 0 2) preferred orientation to a mixture of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1¯ 1) orientations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 56, no 2, 107-113 p.
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47702DOI: 10.1016/S0042-207X(99)00177-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-47702DiVA: diva2:268598