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Hard lessons: Effort-inducing interfaces benefit spatial learning
Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, NWE-B2, San Jose, CA 95120, United States.
2007 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Interface designers normally strive for a design that minimises the user's effort. However, when the design's objective is to train users to interact with interfaces that are highly dependent on spatial properties (e.g. keypad layout or gesture shapes) we contend that designers should consider explicitly increasing the mental effort of interaction. To test the hypothesis that effort aids spatial memory, we designed a "frost-brushing" interface that forces the user to mentally retrieve spatial information, or to physically brush away the frost to obtain visual guidance. We report results from two experiments using virtual keypad interfaces - the first concerns spatial location learning of buttons on the keypad, and the second concerns both location and trajectory learning of gesture shape. The results support our hypothesis, showing that the frost-brushing design improved spatial learning. The participants' subjective responses emphasised the connections between effort, engagement, boredom, frustration, and enjoyment, suggesting that effort requires careful parameterisation to maximise its effectiveness. Copyright 2007 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. 1571-1580 p.
Keyword [en]
Education, Gesture stroke, Learning, Pen input, Skill acquisition, Spatial memory, Text entry, Training
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-48122DOI: 10.1145/1240624.1240863ISI: 000267123300180ISBN: 978-1-59593-593-9OAI: diva2:269018
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2013-02-21

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Kristensson, Per-Ola
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The Institute of TechnologyMDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces
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