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An Iranian (Farsi) version of the temperament and character inventory: A cross-cultural comparison
Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Norway, Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Uslo. Postboks 23 Tåsen, N-0801 Oslo, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
University of Rehabilitation and Welfare, Tehran.
Department of Clinical Science, WHO Collaborating Centre, Umeå University.
2007 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 100, no 3 II, 1218-1228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory is a widely used personality questionnaire. It was developed to measure the four temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, as well as three character dimensions, such as Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence, described in Cloninger's unified biosocial theory of personality. In a sample of 300 Germans, 300 Swedes, and 316 Iranian subjects, a factorial structure analysis using the Procrustes rotation method showed the structure of personality to be generally equivalent across cultures. Noteworthy cultural differences between the overall Asian and European subjects reflected by the data were observed in various Temperament and Character dimensions. Seemingly, there are cultural differences in the expression of the various personality facets that require a replacement of many items in the Iranian version. The Temperament and Character Inventory is sensitive to age, sex, and cultural differences in personality. © Psychological Reports 2007.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 100, no 3 II, 1218-1228 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49455DOI: 10.2466/PR0.100.3.1218-1228OAI: diva2:270351
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2010-05-24

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