Cytocidal effects of atheromatous plaque components: The death zone revisited
2006 (English)In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, Vol. 20, no 13, 2281-2290 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Objective: Earlier we suggested that atheroma lesions constitute a "death zone" containing toxic materials that may cause dysfunction and demise of invading macrophages to prevent the removal of plaque materials. Here we have assessed the cytotoxic effects of nonfractionated gruel and insoluble (ceroid-like) material derived from advanced human atheroma. Methods and Results: The insoluble material within advanced atherosclerotic plaque was isolated following protease K digestion and extensive extraction with aqueous and organic solvents. FTIR, Raman, and atomic absorption spectroscopy suggested that, despite its fluorescent nature, this material closely resembled hydroxyapatite and dentin, but also contained a significant amount of iron and calcium. When added to J774 cells and human macrophages in culture, this insoluble substance was phagocytosed, and progressive cell death followed. However, an even more cytotoxic activity was found in the atheromatous "gruel" that contains abundant carbonyls/aldehydes. Cell death caused by both crude gruel and ceroid could be blocked by preincubating cells with the lipophilic iron chelator salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone, apoferritin, BAPTA/AM, or sodium borohydride, indicating that cellular iron, calcium, and reactive aldehyde(s) are responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Toxic materials within atheromatous lesions include both ceroid and even more cytotoxic lipidaceous materials. The cytotoxic effects of these plaque components may help explain the persistence of atherosclerotic lesions. © FASEB.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 20, no 13, 2281-2290 p.
Apoferritin, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Carbonyls, Ceroid, Iron, Macrophages
National CategoryMedical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50100DOI: 10.1096/fj.06-6114comOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-50100DiVA: diva2:270996