A theoretical study of water equilibria: The cluster distribution versus temperature and pressure for (H2O)n, n=1–60, and ice
2009 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, Vol. 131, no 13, 134302-134302-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The size distribution of water clusters at equilibrium is studied using quantum-chemical calculations in combination with statistical thermodynamics. The necessary energetic data is obtained by quantum-chemical B3LYP computations and through extrapolations from the B3LYP results for the larger clusters. Clusters with up to 60 molecules are included in the equilibrium computations. Populations of different cluster sizes are calculated using both an ideal gas model with noninteracting clusters and a model where a correction for the interaction energy is included analogous to the van der Waals law. In standard vapor the majority of the water molecules are monomers. For the ideal gas model at 1 atm large clusters [56-mer (0–120 K) and 28-mer (100–260 K)] dominate at low temperatures and separate to smaller clusters [21–22-mer (170–280 K) and 4–6-mer (270–320 K) and to monomers (300–350 K)] when the temperature is increased. At lower pressure the transition from clusters to monomers lies at lower temperatures and fewer cluster sizes are formed. The computed size distribution exhibits enhanced peaks for the clusters consisting of 21 and 28 water molecules; these sizes are for protonated water clusters often referred to as magic numbers. If cluster-cluster interactions are included in the model the transition from clusters to monomers is sharper (i.e., occurs over a smaller temperature interval) than when the ideal-gas model is used. Clusters with 20–22 molecules dominate in the liquid region. When a large icelike cluster is included it will dominate for temperatures up to 325 K for the noninteracting clusters model. Thermodynamic properties (Cp, H) were calculated with in general good agreement with experimental values for the solid and gas phase. A formula for the number of H-bond topologies in a given cluster structure is derived. For the 20-mer it is shown that the number of topologies contributes to making the population of dodecahedron-shaped cluster larger than that of a lower-energy fused prism cluster at high temperatures.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 131, no 13, 134302-134302-13 p.
water, vapour, ice, quantum chemistry, statistical thermodynamics, hydrogen bonding
National CategoryTheoretical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50778DOI: 10.1063/1.3239474OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-50778DiVA: diva2:272152