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Evaluation of Alternative Label Placement Techniques in Dynamic Virtual Environments
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
NASA, Ames Research Center, USA.
2009 (English)In: International Symposium on Smart Graphics, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, 43-55 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on an experiment comparing label placement techniques in a dynamic virtual environment rendered on a stereoscopic display. The labeled objects are in motion, and thus labels need to continuously maintain separation for legibility. The results from our user study show that traditional label placement algorithms, which always strive for full label separation in the 2D view plane, produce motion that disturbs the user in a visual search task. Alternative algorithms maintaining separation in only one spatial dimension are rated less disturbing, even though several modifications are made to traditional algorithms for reducing the amount and salience of label motion. Maintaining depth separation of labels through stereoscopic disparity adjustments is judged theleast disturbing, while such separation yields similar user performance to traditional algorithms. These results are important in the design offuture 3D user interfaces, where disturbing or distracting motion due to object labeling should be avoided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009. 43-55 p.
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 5531
Keyword [en]
Label placement, user interfaces, stereoscopic displays, virtual reality, visual clutter
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51074DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02115-2_4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-51074DiVA: diva2:272661
Available from: 2009-10-15 Created: 2009-10-15 Last updated: 2009-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stereoscopic Label Placement: Reducing Distraction and Ambiguity in Visually Cluttered Displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stereoscopic Label Placement: Reducing Distraction and Ambiguity in Visually Cluttered Displays
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With increasing information density and complexity, computer displays may become visually cluttered, adversely affecting overall usability. Text labels can significantly add to visual clutter in graphical user interfaces, but are generally kept legible through specific label placement algorithms that seek visual separation of labels and other objects in the 2D view plane. This work studies an alternative approach: can overlapping labels be visually segregated by distributing them in stereoscopic depth? The fact that we have two forward-looking eyes yields stereoscopic disparity: each eye has a slightly different perspective on objects in the visual field. Disparity is used for depth perception by the human visual system, and is therefore also provided by stereoscopic 3D displays to produce a sense of depth.

This work has shown that a stereoscopic label placement algorithm yields user performance comparable with existing algorithms that separate labels in the view plane. At the same time, such stereoscopic label placement is subjectively rated significantly less disturbing than traditional methods. Furthermore, it does not allow for potentially ambiguous spatial relationships between labels and background objects inherent to labels separated in the view plane. These findings are important for display systems where disturbance, distraction and ambiguity of the overlay can negatively impact safety and efficiency of the system, including the reference application of this work: an augmented vision system for Air Traffic Control towers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electroic Press, 2009. 75 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1293
Keyword
Label placement, user interfaces, stereoscopic displays, augmented reality, virtual reality, visual clutter
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51742 (URN)978-91-7393-469-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-18, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-12-07 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved

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Peterson, Stephen D.Axholt, MagnusCooper, Matthew

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