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Self-perceived health among older men living in their own residence: a four year follow-up study
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study characterize older men, who perceived themselves as healthy, with focus on demographical, social, medical and functional factors, and describe changes within the healthy group over time and find predictors of self-perceived health. The study has a prospective design and included 303 men, 75 and 80 years old, living in a municipality in the south of Sweden. Data collection took place 2001-2006 in a total of three – five examinations at an interval of one year. The examinations included questionnaires validated and tested for reliability, assessing the nutritional status, (Mini Nutritional Assessment), symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale-20), cognitive function (Mini Mental State Examination), health-related quality of life (Nottingham Health Profile), wellbeing (Philadelphia Geriatric Centre Multilevel Assessment Instrument), demographic factors, physical- and biochemical assessments. The men were divided into two groups according to their self-perceived health, 58% (n=175) perceived themselves as healthy and 42% n=128) as less healthy. Good physical health, the ability to walk a distance outdoors, an ability to maintain a social network and having energy were factors important to feeling healthy among men at baseline. Analyses at the follow-ups included men whom still perceived themselves as healthy and men who perceived their health as being impaired. Seventy five percent (n=132) of the healthy group at baseline still perceived themselves as healthy at the first follow-up. Important factors for a self perceived good health when growing older were feeling mentally well and being able to walk up and downstairs. These results indicated that areas representing the individuals own perception and ability are important to feel healthy.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51551OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-51551DiVA: diva2:275632
Available from: 2009-11-06 Created: 2009-11-06 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Self-Perceived Health and Nutritional Status among Home-Living Older People: A Prospective Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Perceived Health and Nutritional Status among Home-Living Older People: A Prospective Study
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim was to follow the development of nutritional status and its significance for general health status using an epiemiologic method in a representative population‐based selection of older individuals in two cohorts. The main focus was to prospectively examine the significance of demographic, social and medical factors and to establish a basis to investigate the possibilities of preventive measures.

Methods: Five hundred and eighty‐three individuals (278 women and 305 men), 75 and 80 years old, when included, living in a municipality in Östergötland in Sweden, participated in this study. Data collection took place 2001‐2006 with one examination yearly. The examination included a single question regarding self‐perceived health demographical questions, different questionnaires in the areas of nutritional status, symptoms of depression, cognitive function, health‐related quality of life and well being and objective assessments such as anthropometrical, physical and biochemical measurements.

Results: Fifty percent of the women (I) and 58% of the men (II) perceived themselves as healthy. Important factors for women’s health (I) at baseline were no or few symptoms of depression, better physical mobility and better physical health. Among men who perceived themselves as healthy (II) at baseline, important factors were better physical health, maintaining a social network and the ability to walk outdoors. After one year 69% of the women and 75% of the men still perceived themselves as healthy. Among those women (I) who perceived themselves as healthy after one year, better physical mobility and better physical health were still important, with the addition of less or no pain. Important predictors for preserving health among men (II) were no symptoms of depression and the ability to walk up and down stairs. The prevalence of risk for malnutrition (III) was 14.5% (n=84), among women 18.8% and men 10.6%. Risk factors for malnutrition at baseline were a lower TSF, lower handgrip strength and worse physical health according to the PGC MAI. The incidence was 7.6%‐16.2%, and was distributed equally among women and men over time. Predictors for developing malnutrition were lower self‐perceived health, increased number of symptoms of depression.  Especially men with symptoms of depression ran a higher risk. Reported energy intake (IV) was low in relation to the estimated requirement, on average 74% among women and 67% among men. Intake of vitamins A, D, E and folate was below the recommended intake and the same pattern was found over time. A smaller weight loss was found among women and men from baseline to Follow‐up 2.

Conclusions: The experience of a good physical health was the only common factor for a good self‐perceived health among women and men. The highest risk for developing malnutrition was a combination of impaired self‐perceived health and increased number of symptoms of depression.

Clinical implications: A combination of nutritional status, self‐perceived health and symptoms of depression can be a base for clinical judgement and can be used by different professionals in ealth and medical care and in home care service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 63 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1154
Keyword
Energy intake, Gender, Health Physical activity, Risk for malnutrition, Symptoms of depression
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51276 (URN)978-91-7393-511-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-06, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, ingång 65, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-06 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2010-05-03Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, YvonneEk, Anna-ChristinaCarstensen, JohnBachrach-Lindström, Margareta

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