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Children with Cochlear Implants: Cognition and Reading Ability
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Barn med cochleaimplantat : Kognition och läsförmåga (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis investigated cognitive ability in children with severe to profound hearing impairment who have received cochlear implants (CIs). The auditory stimulation from a cochlear implant early in life influences most cognitive functions as a consequence of the plasticity of the brain in the young child. It is important to understand the cognitive consequences of auditory stimulation from CIs in order to provide adequate support to these children. This thesis examined three specific aspects of cognitive ability (working memory, phonological skill and lexical access), and reading ability in children with CIs, as compared to children with normal hearing in the same age. The relations between cognitive abilities and reading skills were also investigated, as well as the associations between demographic variables (e.g., age at implantation and communication mode), cognitive abilities and reading skills. The children with CI generally had lower performance levels than the normal hearing children in tasks of phonological and general working memory, phonological skills and lexical access. They had specific problems in tasks with high demands on phonological working memory, whereas their performance levels in tasks of visuospatial working memory were on par with the hearing children. A majority of the children with CI demonstrated reading skills within the normal range for hearing children, both for decoding and reading comprehension. The relations between demographic factors and cognitive skills varied somewhat between the studies. The patterns of result are discussed with reference to contemporary theories of working memory, phonological skills, and lexical access.

Abstract [en]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att studera kognitiva förmågor hos barn med grav hörselskada eller dövhet som fått cochleaimplantat (CI). Auditiv stimulering från CI i tidig ålder påverkar de flesta kognitiva funktioner som en följd av hjärnans plasticitet hos små barn. Det är viktigt att förstå de kognitiva konsekvenserna av auditiv stimulering från CI för att kunna ge dessa barn bästa möjliga stöd. Avhandlingen undersökte tre specifika aspekter av kognitiv förmåga (arbetsminne, fonologiska förmågor och lexikal aktivering), samt läsförmåga hos barn med CI, i jämförelse med barn med normal hörsel i samma åldrar. Relationerna mellan kognitiva förmågor och läsförmåga studerades också, liksom sambanden mellan demografiska faktorer (t ex implantationsålder och kommunikationssätt) och kognitiva förmågor samt läsfärdigheter. Barnen med CI hade generellt lägre prestationsnivå än barnen med normal hörsel i uppgifter som mäter fonologiskt och generellt arbetsminne, fonologiska förmågor och lexikal aktivering. De hade specifika problem i uppgifter som i hög grad belastar fonologiskt arbetsminne, medan deras visuospatiala arbetsminneskapacitet var jämförbar med den hos barnen med normal hörsel. Majoriteten av barnen med CI hade läsfärdigheter i nivå med normalhörande barn, för både avkodning och läsförståelse. Sambanden mellan demografiska faktorer och kognitiva förmågor och läsförmåga varierade mellan studierna. Resultatmönstren diskuteras utifrån teorier om arbetsminne, fonologiska färdigheter och lexikal aktivering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 75 + papers 1-4 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 503Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 30
Keyword [en]
Cochlear implants, children, working memory, phonological skills, lexical access, reading ability
Keyword [sv]
Cochleaimplantat, barn, arbetsminne, fonologiska färdigheter, lexikal aktivering, läsförmåga.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51735ISBN: 978-91-7393-487-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-51735DiVA: diva2:277216
Public defence
2009-11-27, Key 1, Hus Key, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In search of cognitive correlates of orthographic learning: Is there a relation between orthographic learning and working memory?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search of cognitive correlates of orthographic learning: Is there a relation between orthographic learning and working memory?
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated the relationships between orthographic learning and other aspects of reading (phonological and orthographic decoding and comprehension) in Swedish children (age 7–9yrs). Cognitive correlates of orthographic learning were also studied, as well as the cognitive predictors of decoding skill and reading comprehension. The results indicated that orthographic learning was related to all the other aspects of reading. Orthographic learning and decoding skills were both related to phonological and visuospatial working memory. Reading comprehension was associated with phonological- and general working memory. The findings are discussed with reference to the component model of working memory.

Keyword
Orthographic learning; working memory; decoding; reading comprehension, children
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51732 (URN)
Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2009-11-16Bibliographically approved
2. Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants.
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2009 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, 463-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This report summarizes some of the results of studies in our laboratory exploring the development of cognitive, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implantation (CI). The children with CI performed at significantly lower levels than the hearing comparison group on the majority of cognitive tests, despite showing levels of nonverbal ability. The differences between children with CI and hearing children were most pronounced on tasks with relatively high phonological processing demands, but they were not limited to phonological processing. Impairment of receptive and productive prosody was also evident in children with CI. Despite these difficulties, 75% of the children with CI reached a level of reading skill comparable to that of hearing children. The results are discussed with respect to compensation strategies in reading.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21117 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00754.x (DOI)19778394 (PubMedID)
Note

On the day of the defence date the title of this article was Cognitive and linguistic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants - measures of accuracy and latency as indicators of development.

Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-29 Last updated: 2014-10-14Bibliographically approved
3. The Relationship between Reading Comphehension, Working Memory and Language in Children with Cochlear Implants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relationship between Reading Comphehension, Working Memory and Language in Children with Cochlear Implants
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2007 (English)In: Acta Neuropsychologica, ISSN 1730-7503, Vol. 5, no 4, 163-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

and profound hearing impairment treated by cochlear implants (CI). In this study we explore this relationship in sixteen Swedish children with CI. We found that over 60% of the children with CI performed at the level of their hearing peers in a reading comprehension test. Demographic factors were not predictive of reading comprehension, but a complex working memory task was. Reading percentile was significantly correlated to the working memory test, but no other correlations between reading and cognitive/linguistic factors remained significant after age was factored out. Individual results from a comparison of the two best and the two poorest readers corroborate group results, confirming the important role of working memory for reading as measured by comprehension of words and sentences in this group of children.

Keyword
Hearing impairment, cognition, phonological processing, lexical access
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51733 (URN)
Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2009-11-16Bibliographically approved
4. Reading Strategies and Cognitive Skills in Children with Cochlear Implants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading Strategies and Cognitive Skills in Children with Cochlear Implants
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2010 (English)In: Acta Neuropsychologica, ISSN 1730-7503, E-ISSN 2084-4298, Vol. 8, no 2, 143-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated WM capacity, lexical access, phonological skills and reading ability in 6 children with cochlear implants (CI), attending grades 1-3. For each test measure, the individual performance of the children with CI was compared to a grade-matched comparison group of children with normal hearing. Performance was also studied in relation to demographic factors. The results reveal that the children with CI have specific difficulties in tasks of phonological skills and phonological working memory (WM) where nonwords are used as test stimuli. They do not seem to have problems with phonological processing of words for which they have a well defined phonological representation. They also experienced relatively more difficulties in tasks on lexical access without any contextual info. We suggest that children with CI are particularly efficient in using compensatory strategies in situations where their auditory perception does not provide sufficient information to correctly match the incoming speech signal to a corresponding representation in the long-term phonological storage. The children with CI in this study are skilled readers, both for decoding of words and nonwords and for reading comprehension. They may use both orthographic and phonological reading strategies although most of them seem to be dependent on phonological decoding to some extent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warsaw, Poland: MedSportPress, 2010
Keyword
Cochlear implants, working memory, phonological skills, lexical access, reading ability
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51734 (URN)
Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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