liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Ethnocultural Empathy: Measurement, psychometric properties, and differences between students in health care education programmes
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Etnokulturell empati : Mätning, psykometrisk egenskap, och skillnader mellan studenter på hälsovårdutbildningsprogram (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to investigate empathy for persons from ethnical groups different than one’s own, an ability called ethnocultural empathy. A scale measuring ethnocultural empathy was translated and validated for a Swedish context and tested in a student sample, a majority of which were healthcare students. Three studies were performed. In study I, the validity and reliability of a Swedish translation of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was investigated (N=326). The purpose of study II was to investigate the association between basic empathy as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). In study III, differences in basic empathy as well as in ethnocultural empathy were explored in a sample of 365 undergraduate students at the beginning and end of four Master programmes in health care education (Medicine, Psychology, Nursing and Social Work). The main results from the present thesis indicate that the central tendency, distribution of scores, intercorrelations, and factor structure in the Swedish version of SEE were well-matched and mainly similar to the American version. A significant strong correlation between basic and ethnocultural empathy was found, suggesting that the two constructs overlap substantially. The results of study III revealed that students from all programmes in health care had fairly high scores on both empathy scales. There were, however, significant differences between the study programmes. Overall, the studies show that ethnocultural empathy is a measurable construct but that it overlaps with basic empathy and further testing of the construct is needed. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka empati hos personer och grupper som har en annan etnisk bakgrund än den egna, en förmåga som kallas etnokulturell empati. Denna förmåga handlar om kunskap och acceptans av andra etniska individer och gruppers kulturella uttryck. Det amerikanska instrument som anses mäta etnokulturell empati översattes och validerades till svenska språk och förhållanden. Därefter testades instrumentet hos studenter på hälsovårdutbildningar i tre studier. I studie I undersöktes instrumentets validitet och reliabilitet i ett urval av 326 respondenter. I studie II undersöktes sambandet mellan grundempati, som anses mätas med instrumentet Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), och etnokulturell empati som anses mätas med Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE). Studie III undersökte skillnader i grundempati och etnokulturell empati hos 365 studenter inom fyra program (Läkare, psykolog, sjuksköterska och socionom) i början och i slutet av deras studier. De huvudsakliga fynden i denna avhandling visade att faktorstrukturen och inter-korrelationerna i den svenska versionen av SEE i stor utsträckning liknade den amerikanska versionen. Dock detta inte bekräftades i konformatoriska faktoranalysen (CFA). Resultatet i studie II visade på ett starkt samband mellan grundempati och etnokulturell empati, vilket tyder på att dessa två konstruktioner av empati kraftigt överlappar varandra. I studie III visade resultatet att alla studenter från hälsovårdsutbildningarna hade höga nivåer av grund- och etnokulturell empati. Emellertid fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan programmen. Psykolog- och socionomstudenter hade högre nivåer av både grund empati och etnokulturell empati. Det övergripande resultat från avhandlingen visade att det går att mäta etnokulturell empati, men den nuvarande konstruktionen överlappar med grund empati. Ytterligare studier behövs för att förbättra instrumentet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 50 + papers 1-3 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 505
Keyword [en]
Ethnocultural empathy, factor analysis, health care, and culture
Keyword [sv]
Etnokulturell empati, faktor analys, hälsovård, och kultur
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51944ISBN: 978-91-7393-471-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-51944DiVA: diva2:278188
Public defence
2009-12-18, Eklundska salen (I: 101), Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-24 Created: 2009-11-24 Last updated: 2014-09-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of a Swedish Version of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Swedish Version of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy
2011 (English)In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, no 6, 568-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development and establishment of a Swedish translation of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was investigated in a sample of 788 participants. The SEE is a self-report instrument and is used to measure empathy directed toward people from ethnic cultural groups who are different from the respondent’s own ethnocultural group. Principal components factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) provided evidence for a four-factor structure. The factors were Acceptance of Cultural Differences, Communicative Ethnocultural Em-pathy, Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness, and Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy. The factors were moderately intercorrelated, and additional correlational analyses showed convergent validity in high correlations between the four factors and the two subscales Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Possible applications of this scale in a healthcare context are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2011
Keyword
Ethnocultural Empathy, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Empathy, Explorative Factor Analysis
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51942 (URN)10.4236/psych.2011.26087 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-11-24 Created: 2009-11-24 Last updated: 2014-11-28
2. Ethnocultural versus Basic Empathy: Same or Different?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnocultural versus Basic Empathy: Same or Different?
2011 (English)In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, no 9, 925-930 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of ethnocultural empathy has been put forward as a variable that could explain tolerance between individuals and groups of different ethnic and cultural background. However, it is not clear if ethnocultural em-pathy is distinct from basic empathy. In this study we investigated the association between basic empathy, as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy, as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). We also explored the question of whether a set of back-ground variables would predict the two forms of empathy. We investigated if there were different predictors of ethnocultural and basic empathy, and if the two constructs are distinct. Results showed that the two forms of empathy were correlated and that largely similar predictors were found for the two constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm two separate constructs. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2011
Keyword
Empathy, Ethnocultural Empathy, Culture, Contact Hypothesis
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80781 (URN)10.4236/psych.2011.29139 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07
3. Ethnocultural Empathy Among Students in Health Care Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnocultural Empathy Among Students in Health Care Education
2009 (English)In: Evaluation & the Health Professions, ISSN 0163-2787, E-ISSN 1552-3918, Vol. 32, no 3, 300-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a multicultural society, ethnocultural empathy has become an important element in most health settings and development of this capacity has become a central component for health care professionals in their interactions with patients and clients. In this study, differences in basic empathy and ethnocultural empathy were explored in a sample of 365 undergraduate students at the beginning and end of four masters programs in health care ( medicine, psychology, nursing, and social work). Results showed that it was mainly psychology students in the first semester who had significantly higher general empathic skills and ethnocultural empathic skills compared to students in the other study programs. Few signs of differences between students in their first and in later semesters were obtained. The observed differences may be explained by ( a) levels of admission grades and applications requirements or (b) different cultures and expectations from the surrounding milieus in the investigated study programs.

Keyword
Empathy, health care, culture, ethnocultural empathy, education
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20603 (URN)10.1177/0163278709338569 (DOI)
Note

The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in: EVALUATION and THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, (32), 3, 300-313, 2009. Chato Rasoal, Tomas Jungert, Elinor Edvardsson Stiwne and Gerhard Andersson, Ethnocultural Empathy Among Students in Health Care Education http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278709338569 by SAGE Publications Ltd, All rights reserved. http://www.uk.sagepub.com/

Available from: 2009-09-16 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Etnokulturell empati Mätning, psykometrisk egenskap, och skillnader mellan studenter på hälsovårdutbildningsprogram(720 kB)2490 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 720 kBChecksum SHA-512
150f1837172453cddd27ca00eaefebb82547f6a053d7cd890352b21889e892cc77a815e4faa29c94dfe8b64277989917a8e581c0834f8e6a08951655f6e35e3c
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Cover(199 kB)127 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 199 kBChecksum SHA-512
2ce922d40fea5ebf00e1c1cf42d2263d5f51e4b9d396968a7863dad91a74fe3cc62dd345c42aa9735d6c487408c5703f1f79d48ea11de1bdd379ead42869cb60
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Rasoal, Chato

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Rasoal, Chato
By organisation
Clinical and Social PsychologyFaculty of Arts and Sciences
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2490 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 4603 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf