Mucosal dendritic cells in inflammatory bowel disease
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammation of the bowel, is a multi-factorial condition where uncontrolled immune responses to luminal bacteria occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The first observable clinical signs are small ulcers that form at a specialised form of epithelium, follicle-associated epithelium (FAB). The FAB covers immune inductive sites, Peyer's patches, which function primarily as sensory areas that sample the externaI gut environment. Dendritic cells are one of the key cells that are involved in sensing luminal contents and orchestrating the gut immune system.
The main aim of this thesis was to determine whether the barrier of the FAB is breached in Crohn's disease and if dysfunctional immune regulators, namely dendritic cells, playaroIe in initiating and/or maintaining the chronic intestinal inflammation.
Using biopsies and surgical specimens, we were able to show that in Crohn's disease, there was an increased transmucosaI transport of Escherichia coli compared to specimens from ulcerative colitis and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) controIs. Dendritic cells internalised a higher percentage of bacteria that had translocated across the FAB in the Crohn's samples. Furthermore, significantly higher concentrations of TNF-u was released upon bacterial stimulation by tissues from patients with Crohn's disease than in controIs.
We went on to characterise the dendritic cells present in the Peyer's patches of patients with Crohn's disease. We found an accumulation of both immature and mature dendritic cells beneath the FAB, in the sub-epithelial dome (SED). Normally, mature dendritic cells migrate towards T cell-rich areas. However, we observed mature dendritic cells accumulating in the SED because they lacked the CCR7 migratory receptor. Furthermore, they were more prone to take-up bacteria, and produced TNF-α.
To study the function of mucosal dendritic cells, we performed isolation experiments and mixed Iymphocyte reactions. Dendritic cells from both the ileum and blood of patients with active Crohn's had reduced capacity for inducing T cell proliferation than non-IBD controIs. Blood dendritic cells of patients in remission had normalised function that was similar to dendritic cells from healthy controls.
The SAMPl/YitFc mice, considered an appropriate murine model for Crohn's disease, had an inherent permeability defect that increased with the chronicity of intestinaI inflammation. However unlike in human Crohn's disease, dendritic cells did not seem to playaroIe in murine ileitis.
This thesis highlights the accumulation of the actively surveying dendritic cells that are prone to bacterial internalisation, and points to their possible different functional roles in active versus in-active disease; thereby confirming dendritic cells as one ofthe key components in the pathogenesis ofCrohn's disease.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 72 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1129
Blood, Crohn's disease, dendritic cells, E. coli, FACS, follicle-associated, epithelium, human, ileum, mixed lymphocyte reaction, permeability, Peyer's patches, SAMP1/YitFc, Ussing chambers, villous epithelium
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52234ISBN: 978-91-7393-625-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-52234DiVA: diva2:280722
2009-05-19, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Wick, Mary jo, Professor
Söderholm, Johan D., Professor
List of papers