liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Driving under the influence of cannabis: a 10-year study of age and gender differences in the concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol in blood
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Nationall Board of Forensic Medicine.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2008 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 103, no 3, 452-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent of cannabis and its various preparations Increasing use of cannabis for recreational purposes has created a problem for road-traffic safety. This paper compares age, gender and the concentrations of THC in blood of individuals apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden, where a zero-tolerance law operates. Measurements Specimens of blood or urine were subjected to a broad screening analysis by enzyme immunoassay methods. THC positives were verified by analysis of blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a deuterium-labelled internal standard (d(3)-THC). All toxicology results were entered into a database (TOXBASE) along with the age and gender of apprehended drivers. Findings Over a 10-year period (1995-2004), between 18% and 30% of all DUID suspects had measurable amounts of THC in their blood (greater than 0.3 ng/ml) either alone or together with other drugs. The mean age [+/- standard deviation (SD)] of cannabis users was 33 +/- 9.4 years (range 15-66 years), with a strong predominance of men (94%, P less than 0.001). The frequency distribution of THC concentrations (n = 8794) was skewed markedly to the right with mean, median and highest values of 2.1 ng/ml, 1.0 ng/ml and 67 ng/ml, respectively. The THC concentration was less than 1.0 ng/ml in 43% of cases and below 2.0 ng/ml in 61% of cases. The age of offenders was not correlated with the concentration of THC in blood (r = -0.027, P greater than 0.05). THC concentrations in blood were higher when this was the only psychoactive substance present (n = 1276); mean 3.6 ng/ml, median 2.0 ng/ml compared with multi-drug users; mean 1.8 ng/ml, median 1.0 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). In cases with THC as the only drug present the concentration was less than 1.0 ng/ml in 26% and below 2.0 ng/ml in 41% of cases. The high prevalence of men, the average age and the concentrations of THC in blood were similar in users of illicit drugs (non-traffic cases). Conclusions The concentration of THC in blood at the time of driving is probably a great deal higher than at the time of sampling (30-90 minutes later) The notion of enacting science-based concentration limits of THC in blood (e.g. 3-5 ng/ml), as discussed in some quarters, would result in many individuals evading prosecution. Zero-tolerance or limit of quantitation laws are a much more pragmatic way to enforce DUID legislation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 103, no 3, 452-461 p.
Keyword [en]
blood; cannabis; drugs; DUID; road traffic accident; tetrahydrocannabinol; THC
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53626DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02091.xOAI: diva2:290315
Available from: 2010-01-26 Created: 2010-01-26 Last updated: 2012-03-21

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Jones, A WayneKugelberg, Fredrik
By organisation
Clinical ChemistryFaculty of Health SciencesClinical Pharmacology
In the same journal
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 272 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link