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Microstructure of high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Ti2AlC coatings
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Kanthal AB.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 10, 2760-2769 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The microstructure formation and phase transformations in Ti2AlC-rich coatings deposited by High Velocity Oxy-fuel spraying of Maxthal 211(A (R)) powders is presented. High resolution electron microscopy analysis, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and energy filtering, combined with X-ray diffraction reveals that the coatings consist of Ti2AlC grains surrounded by regions of very small TiC grains embedded in Ti (x) Al (y) . The composition of the Ti (x) Al (y) depends on its surrounding and varies with size and distribution of the adjacent TiC grains. Impact of spray parameters on coating microstructure is also discussed. Two spray parameters were varied; powder size distribution and flame power. They were found to greatly affect the coating microstructure. Increasing powder size and decreasing flame power increase the amount of Ti2AlC, but produces thinner coatings with lower cohesion. Larger powder size will also decrease oxygen incorporation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer , 2010. Vol. 45, no 10, 2760-2769 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54608DOI: 10.1007/s10853-010-4263-4ISI: 000275457100029OAI: diva2:305994
Available from: 2010-03-26 Created: 2010-03-26 Last updated: 2016-08-31
In thesis
1. Thick and Thin Ti2AlC Coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thick and Thin Ti2AlC Coatings
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This Thesis explores the deposition techniques of magnetron sputtering and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying for Ti2AlC as a promising high-temperature material. Magnetron sputtering aims at producing thin (≤1 μm) Ti2AlC films of high crystal quality for use as a model system in understanding the material’s basic properties. HVOF is a new method for deposition of thick (≥200 μm) coatings by spraying Ti2AlC powder, with the aim of transferring the good bulk properties to coatings. The oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC coatings has been investigated for temperatures up to 1200 °C in air. As-deposited Ti2AlC(0001) thin films decompose into TiC during vacuum annealing at 700 °C by out-diffusion of Al as shown by x-ray diffraction analysis. The release of Al starts already at 500 °C in ambient air as driven by aluminum oxide formation on the film surface where the oxide initially forms clusters as observed by electron microscopy. While sputtering from a Ti2AlC target is simpler than by using different elemental targets, the resulting film composition differs from the target stoichiometry. This is due to differences in energy and angular distribution of the sputtered species and evaporation of Al at substrate temperatures above 700 °C. The composition can be compensated for by adding Ti to bind the Al and obtain phase-pure Ti2AlC coatings. For HVOF, I demonstrate how the total gas flow of a H2/O2 mixture (441-953 liter/min) and the powder grain size (30-56 μm) determine the thickness, density, and microstructure of the coatings. High gas flow and small grain size yield thick coatings of 210 μm with a low porosity of 2-8 % and a tensile stress of ≥80 MPa. A fraction of the Ti2AlC powder decomposes during spraying into TiC, Ti3AlC2, and Ti-Al alloys. The coatings also contain as much as 25 at.% O since the powder partly oxidizes during the spraying process. Increasing the powder size and decreasing the total gas flow yield a higher amount of Ti2AlC, but produces thinner coatings with lower cohesion. Post-annealing of the coatings at 900 °C in vacuum increases the Ti2AlC content due to a reversible phase transformation of the as-sprayed material. The high oxygen content, however, hinders the coating to completely transform into Ti2AlC and deteriorates its oxidation resistance. The work thus offers insights to the key parameters for optimizing Ti2AlC coating processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 63 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1328
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57525 (URN)978-91-7393-356-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-09-03, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15
Available from: 2010-06-22 Created: 2010-06-22 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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