liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Age hardening in arc-evaporated ZrAlN thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
SECO Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
Sandvik Tooling AB.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 62, no 10, 739-741 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20 films were deposited by reactive arc evaporation on WC-Co substrates. As-deposited films have a defect-rich NaCl-cubic and wurtzite phase mixture. During annealing at 1100 degrees C the films undergo simultaneous recovery of the ZrN-rich c-ZrAlN nanoscale domains and formation of semicoherent w-ZrAlN nanobricks, while the excess nitrogen is released. This process results in an age hardening effect as high as 36%, as determined by nanoindentation. At 1200 degrees C, the w-AlN recrystallizes and the hardening effect is lost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. , 2010. Vol. 62, no 10, 739-741 p.
Keyword [en]
PVD, Nanoindentation, TEM, Hardness, Thin films
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54847DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2010.01.049ISI: 000276295800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-54847DiVA: diva2:310870
Available from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-04-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanostructuring and Age Hardening in TiSiCN, ZrAlN, and TiAlN Thin Films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanostructuring and Age Hardening in TiSiCN, ZrAlN, and TiAlN Thin Films
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores nanostructuring in TiSiCN, ZrAlN, and TiAlN thin films deposited by cathodic arc evaporation onto cemented carbide substrates, with intended applications for cutting tools. The three systems were found to exhibit age hardening upon annealing, by different mechanisms, into the superhard regime (≥30 GPa), as determined by a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atom probe tomography, erda, and nanoindentation tech- niques. TiSiCN forms nanocomposite films during growth by virtue of Si segregation to the surface of TiCN nanocrystallites while simultaneously pro- moting renucleation. Thus, the common columnar microstructure of TiCN and low-Si-content (≤5 at. %) TiSiN-films is replaced by a “feather-like” nanos- tructure in high-Si-content (≥10 at. %) TiSiCN films. The presence of C promotes the formation of this structure, and results in an accelerated age hardening beginning at temperatures as low as 700 °C. The thermal stability of the TiSiCN films is, however, decreased compared to the TiSiN system by the loss of Si and interdiffusion of substrate species; C was found to ex- acerbate these processes, which became active at 900 °C. The ZrAlN system forms a two-phase nanostructure during growth consisting of cubic ZrAlN and wurtzite ZrAlN. Upon annealing to 1100 °C, the c-Zr(Al)N portion of the films recovers and semicoherent brick-like w-(Zr)AlN structures are formed. Age hardening by 36 % was obtained before overageing sets in at 1200 °C. As-deposited and annealed solid solution Ti0.33Al0.67N thin films were characterized for the first time by atom probe tomography. The as-deposited film was found to be at the very initial stage of spinodal decomposition, which continued during annealing of the film at 900 °C for 2 h. N preferentially segregates to Al-rich domains in the annealed sample, causing a compositional variation between Ti-rich and Al-rich domains, to maintain the stoichiometry for the developing AlN phase. That effect also compensates for some of the coherency strain formed between cubic domains of TiN and AlN. Finally, a possible Kirkendall effect caused by an imbalance in the metal interdiffusion during the spinodal decomposition was discovered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 36 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1442
Keyword
thin films, age hardening, spinodal decomposition, TiSiCN, ZrAlN, TiAlN, Transmission electron microscopy, Atom probe tomography
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56221 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2010:13 (Local ID)978-91-7393-370-4 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2010:13 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2010:13 (OAI)
Presentation
(English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. High temperature behavior of arc evaporated ZrAlN and TiAlN thin films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature behavior of arc evaporated ZrAlN and TiAlN thin films
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hard coatings can extend the life time of a tool substantially and enable higher cutting speeds which increase the productivity in the cutting application. The aim with this thesis is to extend the understanding on how the microstructure and mechanical properties are affected by high temperatures similar to what a cutting tool can reach during operation.

Thin films of ZrAlN and TiAlN have been deposited using cathodic arc-evaporation. The microstructure of as-deposited and annealed films has been studied using electron microscopy and x-ray scattering. The thermal stability has been characterized by calorimetry and thermogravity and the mechanical properties have been investigated by  nanoindentation.

The microstructure of Zr1−xAlxN thin films was studied as a function of composition, deposition conditions, and annealing temperature. The structure was found to depend on the Al content where a low (x < 0.38) Al-content results in cubic-structured ZrAlN while for x > 0.70 the structure is hexagonal. For intermediate Al contents (0.38 < x < 0.70), a  nanocomposite structure with a mixture of cubic, hexagonal and amorphous phases is obtained.

The cubic ZrAlN phase transforms by nucleation and growth of hexagonal AlN when annealed above 900 C. Annealing of hexagonal ZrAlN thin films (x > 0.70) above 900 C causes formation of AlN and ZrN rich domains within the hexagonal lattice. Annealing of nanocomposite ZrAlN thin films results in formation of cubic ZrN and hexagonal AlN. The transformation is initiated by nucleation and growth of cubic ZrN at temperatures of 1100 C while the AlN-rich domains are still amorphous or nanocrystalline. Growth of hexagonal AlN is suppressed by the high nitrogen content of the films and takes place at annealing temperatures of 1400 C.

In the more well known TiAlN system, the initial stage of decomposition is spinodal with formation of cubic structured domains enriched in TiN and AlN. By a combination of in-situ xray scattering techniques during annealing and phase field simulations, both the microstructure that evolves during decomposition and the decomposition rate are found to depend on the composition. The results further show that early formation of hexagonal AlN domains during decomposition can cause formation of strains in the cubic TiAlN phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 78 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1428
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75176 (URN)978-91-7519-956-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-22, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-20 Created: 2012-02-20 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
3. Inside The Miscibility Gap: Nanostructuring and Phase Transformations in Hard Nitride Coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inside The Miscibility Gap: Nanostructuring and Phase Transformations in Hard Nitride Coatings
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is concerned with self-organization phenomena in hard and wear resistant transition-metal nitride coatings, both during growth and during post deposition thermal annealing. The uniting physical principle in the studied systems is the immiscibility of their constituent parts, which leads, under certain conditions, to structural variations on the nanoscale. The study of such structures is challenging, and during this work atom probe tomography (apt) was developed as a viable tool for their study. Ti0.33Al0.67N was observed to undergo spinodal decomposition upon annealing to 900 °C, by the use of apt in combination with electron microscopy. The addition of C to TiSiN was found to promote and refine the feather-like microstructure common in the system, with an ensuing decrease in thermal stability. An age-hardening of 36 % was measured in arc evaporated Zr0.44Al0.56N1.20, which was a nanocomposite of cubic, hexagonal, and amorphous phases. Magnetron sputtering of Zr0.64Al0.36N at 900 °C resulted in a self-organized and highly ordered growth of a two-dimensional two-phase labyrinthine structure of cubic ZrN and wurtzite AlN.The structure was analyzed and recovered by apt, although the ZrN phase suffered from severe trajectory aberrations, rendering only the Al signal useable.The initiation of the organized growth was found to occur by local nucleation at 5-8 nm from the substrate, before which random fluctuations in Al/Zr content increased steadily from the substrate. Finally, the decomposition of solid-solution TiB0.33N0.67 was found, by apt, to progress through the nucleation of TiB0.5N0.5 and TiN, followed by the transformation of the former into hexagonal TiB2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 69 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1472
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84263 (URN)978-91-7519-809-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-19, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Rogström, LinaJohnson, LarsHultman, LarsOdén, Magnus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Rogström, LinaJohnson, LarsHultman, LarsOdén, Magnus
By organisation
Nanostructured MaterialsThe Institute of TechnologyThin Film Physics
In the same journal
Scripta Materialia
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 746 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf