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On-line monitoring of solutes in dialysate using adsorption of ultraviolet radiation: technical description
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nephrology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2002 (English)In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 25, no 8, 748-761 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE:

The aim of this work was to describe a new optical method for monitoring solutes in a spent dialysate using absorption of UV radiation.

METHOD:

The method utilises UV-absorbance determined in the spent dialysate using a spectrophotometrical set-up. Measurements were performed both on collected dialysate samples and on-line. During on-line monitoring, a spectrophotometer was connected to the fluid outlet of the dialysis machine, with all spent dialysate passing through a specially-designed cuvette for optical single-wavelength measurements. The concentrations of several substances of various molecular sizes, electrical charge, transport mechanism, etc. were determined in the dialysate and in the blood using standard laboratory techniques. The correlation coefficient between UV-absorbance of the spent dialysate and concentration of the substances in the spent dialysate and in the blood was calculated from data based on the collected samples.

RESULTS:

The obtained on-line UV-absorbance curve demonstrates the possibility to follow a single hemodialysis session continuously and to monitor deviations in the dialysator performance using UV-absorbance. The experimental results indicate a very good correlation between UV-absorbance and several small waste solutes removed such as urea, creatinine and uric acid in the spent dialysate and in the blood for every individual treatment at a fixed wavelength of 285 nm. Moreover, a good correlation between the UV-absorbance and substances like potassium, phosphate and beta2-microglobulin was obtained. The lowest correlation was achieved for sodium, calcium, glucose, vitamin B12 and albumin.

CONCLUSIONS:

A technique for on-line monitoring of solutes in the spent dialysate utilising the UV-absorbance was developed. On-line monitoring during a single hemodialysis session exploiting UV-absorbance represents a possibility to follow a single hemodialysis session continuously and monitor deviations in dialysis efficiency (e.g. changes in blood flow and clearance). The UV-absorbance correlates well to the concentration of several solutes known to accumulate in dialysis patients indicating that the technique can be used to estimate the removal of retained substances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 25, no 8, 748-761 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54937PubMedID: 12296459OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-54937DiVA: diva2:311703
Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-22 Last updated: 2013-01-29
In thesis
1. Photon propagation in tissue and in biological fluids: applied for vascular imaging and haemodialysis monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photon propagation in tissue and in biological fluids: applied for vascular imaging and haemodialysis monitoring
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on the photon propagation in tissue and in biological fluids in two main areas: (1) optical vessel imaging and (2) monitoring solutes removed in haemodialysis.

The aim of the optical vessel imaging study was to design and assess a new optical scanning technique for vessel imaging using NIR radiation. The results indicated that veins could be determined at three vascular levels (superficial, intermediate and deep) down to 3 mm. Moreover, experimental results demonstrated that the vessel imaging facility depends upon source-detector separation, relative position, and vessel depth and does not depend essentially on the radiant power from the light source. After vessel imaging the technique can potentially be used to monitor several physiological parameters on a selected vascular bed (e.g. local blood flow, oxygen saturation).

The theoretical model, based on the diffusion approximation, was developed to explain theoretically the origin of experimental results. An analytical solution was obtained describing photon propagation under certain conditions during vessel identification. The modelled results confirmed previously obtained experimental results.

A new optical method for monitoring solutes in a spent dialysate using absorption of UV-radiation was developed. The obtained on-line UV-absorbance curve demonstrates the possibility to follow a single haemodialysis session continuously and to monitor deviations in the dialysator performance using UV-absorbance. The experimental results indicated that the UV-absorbance correlates well to the concentration of several solutes known to accumulate in dialysis patients indicating that the technique can be used to estimate the removal of retained substances.

Furthermore, a clinical study suggested that the delivered dialysis dose in terms of the traditional urea Kt/V could be estimated by on-line measurement of the UV-absorption in the spent dialysate. This means that the UV-method may add a new methodology for improvement of the quality and adequacy of the dialysis.

An investigation of the wavelength dependence of the UV-absorbance when monitoring different compounds in the dialysate showed that the UV-absorbance correlates well to several small molecular weight solutes ( < 200 D), around 290-310 nm. The highest contribution to the total absorbance from the observed compounds was confirmed in this wavelength region. The results indicated, that it might be possible to measure the elimination of several substances that are retained in the uraemic patients and with potential clinical significance. From thisviewpoint, the UV-absorbance monitoring technique may become a more universal method to ensure the quality and adequacy of the dialysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2003. 164 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 818
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24500 (URN)6624 (Local ID)91-737-3638-4 (ISBN)6624 (Archive number)6624 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-05-06, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2013-01-29

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Fridolin, IvoMagnusson, MartinLindberg, Lars-Göran

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