liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
The European carbon balance. Part 4: integration of carbon and other trace-gas fluxes
Max Planck Institute.
Max Planck Institute.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, ISSN 1354-1013, Vol. 16, no 5, 1451-1469 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Overviewing the European carbon (C), greenhouse gas (GHG), and non-GHG fluxes, gross primary productivity (GPP) is about 9.3 Pg yr-1, and fossil fuel imports are 1.6 Pg yr-1. GPP is about 1.25% of solar radiation, containing about 360 x 1018 J energy - five times the energy content of annual fossil fuel use. Net primary production (NPP) is 50%, terrestrial net biome productivity, NBP, 3%, and the net GHG balance, NGB, 0.3% of GPP. Human harvest uses 20% of NPP or 10% of GPP, or alternatively 1 parts per thousand of solar radiation after accounting for the inherent cost of agriculture and forestry, for production of pesticides and fertilizer, the return of organic fertilizer, and for the C equivalent cost of GHG emissions. C equivalents are defined on a global warming potential with a 100-year time horizon. The equivalent of about 2.4% of the mineral fertilizer input is emitted as N2O. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere are about 40% of total methane, 60% of total NO-N, 70% of total N2O-N, and 95% of total NH3-N emissions of Europe. European soils are a net C sink (114 Tg yr-1), but considering the emissions of GHGs, soils are a source of about 26 Tg CO2 C-equivalent yr-1. Forest, grassland and sediment C sinks are offset by GHG emissions from croplands, peatlands and inland waters. Non-GHGs (NH3, NOx) interact significantly with the GHG and the C cycle through ammonium nitrate aerosols and dry deposition. Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) supports about 50% of forest timber growth. Land use change is regionally important. The absolute flux values total about 50 Tg C yr-1. Nevertheless, for the European trace-gas balance, land-use intensity is more important than land-use change. This study shows that emissions of GHGs and non-GHGs significantly distort the C cycle and eliminate apparent C sinks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2010. Vol. 16, no 5, 1451-1469 p.
Keyword [en]
agriculture, carbon cycle, CH4, CO2, Europe, forestry, greenhouse gases, land-use change, N2O, NH3, non-greenhouse gases, NOx, O-3
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55539DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02215.xISI: 000276696100004OAI: diva2:316271
Available from: 2010-04-30 Created: 2010-04-30 Last updated: 2013-03-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bastviken, David
By organisation
Department of Water and Environmental StudiesFaculty of Arts and Sciences
Natural Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 160 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link