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Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation and immune components in breast milk
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human milk transfers important immunological information from mother to child. We have previously reported lower prevalence of IgE-mediated disease at 12 months after maternal supplementation with ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) during pregnancy and lactation. Our aim was to explore the effect of ω-3 LCPUFA on the immune composition of human milk in relation to maternal atopy and allergic disease in the offspring. Pregnant women in families with a history of allergic disease were supplemented daily with 2.7 g ω-3 LCPUFA or 2.8 g soybean oil as placebo from late pregnancy to three months of lactation. Milk samples from colostrum (n=107), at 1 mo (n=102) and at 3 mo (n=95) were analyzed for IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40/p70, IL-13, GM-CSF, TNF, IFN-γ, PGE2, TSLP, TGF-ß2 and SIgA with multiplex assay or ELISA. The levels of several cytokines were higher in non-atopic ω-3 supplemented mothers as compared to placebo supplemented mothers regardless of atopic status. Higher levels of TGFß2 and SIgA in 3 months milk were associated with allergic disease at one year of age both with and without detectable IgE. These results suggest that ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy influences cytokine levels in breast milk especially in non-atopic mothers.

Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56264OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-56264DiVA: diva2:317851
Available from: 2010-05-05 Created: 2010-05-05 Last updated: 2010-05-05
In thesis
1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, maternal and infant immune responses and allergic disease in infancy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyunsaturated fatty acids, maternal and infant immune responses and allergic disease in infancy
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The incidence of allergic diseases in industrialized countries has increased, and a relation between allergy and dietary fatty acids has been proposed. Modulation of the maternal immune function during pregnancy may have an impact on future clinical outcome in the child.

Aim: The aim of this thesis was to add knowledge on the relationship between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, sensitization and allergic disease and possible immunological events regulating this.

Subjects: The thesis is based on results obtained from two cohorts. The first, including 300 cord blood samples collected from 1985-2005. The second, a double-blind placebo controlled multi-centre study comprising 145 families with allergic disease.

Methods: Phospholipid fatty acids and total IgE antibodies were analyzed in cord blood samples with gas chromatography and Uni-CAP™, respectively.

The families participating in the double-blind placebo controlled multi-centre study were recruited at antenatal units in Linköping and Jönköping and the mothers were supplemented with 2.6 g ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) or placebo daily from gestational week 25 until 3 months of breast feeding. Phospholipid fatty acids in maternal serum were analysed before and during the intervention to assess compliance. Prostaglandin E2, leukotrienes B4 and cytokines were analyzed with ELISA technique in supernatants from maternal LPS-stimulated whole blood cultures. Clinical outcome was allergic disease with positive skin prick test and/or specific circulating IgE to food allergens at one year of age. Cytokines, chemokines, SIgA antibodies and prostaglandin E2 were analyzed in breast milk with Luminex and ELISA techniques.

Results: The proportions of cord serum linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 ω-3) decreased significantly from 1985 to 2005. However, the LA/LNA ratio did increase, revealing a relatively larger decrease in LNA than in LA. The proportions of both arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4 ω-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ω-3) as well as other ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids increased significantly during the same time period. No correlations were found between ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids and total IgE antibodies.

Proportions of ω-3 LCPUFA increased in the ω-3 supplemented group of mothers.

Lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 secretion in whole blood culture decreased in a majority of ω-3 PUFA supplemented mothers (18 of 28, p < 0.002).The decreased prostaglandin E2 production was more pronounced among non-atopic than atopic mothers. Lipopolysaccharide induced cytokine and chemokine secretion was not affected. The period prevalence of food allergy was lower in the ω-3 group (1⁄52, 2%) compared to the placebo group (10⁄65, 15%, p <0.05) as well as the incidence of IgE-associated eczema (ω-3 group: 4 ⁄ 52, 8%; placebo group: 15 ⁄ 63, 24%, p < 0.05) at one of year. There were no differences in breast milk cytokine, SIgA and PGE2 levels between the two intervention groups. However, the levels of several cytokines tended to be higher in colostrum from non-atopic ω-3 supplemented mothers as compared to non-atopic placebo supplemented mothers. Higher levels of TGFß2 and SIgA in 3 months milk were associated with allergic disease at one year of age both with and without detectable IgE.

Conclusions: Cord blood LA proportions decreased and LA/LNA ratio increased over the 20 year period between 1985 and 2005 this was not related to total IgE. ω-3 fatty acid supplementation of pregnant and lactating mothers resulted in a lower period prevalence of IgE associated eczema and food allergy in the children at one year of age. This was most pronounced in children of non-allergic mothers. The underlying mechanism requires further clarification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 97 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1182
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56265 (URN)978-91-7393-400-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-07, Linden, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:30 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2010-05-05 Created: 2010-05-05 Last updated: 2010-05-06Bibliographically approved

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Warstedt, KristinaFuruhjelm, CatrinFälth-Magnusson, KarinDuchén, KarelFagerås Böttcher, Malin

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