Many patients are diagnosed as having chronic heart failure (CHF) and apart from the fact that daily activities are impaired, they are great consumers of health care, and the prognosis is poor. The distinction between acute heart failure (AHF) and CHF may be difficult and is more a question of time rather than severity. The “gold standard” treatment for end‐stage heart failure is heart transplantation. Due to organ shortage this is reserved for selected patients only. Since the introduction of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) more and more patients with progressive CHF have been bridged‐to‐heart‐transplantation. There are MCS systems available for both short‐ and long‐term support. Newer concepts such as ventricular constraint to prevent ventricular remodelling are on the way. We have investigated short‐ (ImpellaTM) and long‐term (HeartMateTM I and II) MCS and ventricular constraint (CorCapTM CSD) as treatment concepts for all forms of heart failure, the aims being: bridge‐to‐decision, bridge‐to‐transplant and extended therapy, called “destination therapy” (DT).
Methods and results: In Paper I, the use of HM‐ITM pulsatile MCS in bridge‐to‐transplantation patients in Sweden was retrospectively investigated regarding outcome and risk factors for mortality and morbidity. Fifty‐nine patients were treated between 1993 and 2002. The dominating diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61%. Median support time was 99.5 days. 18.6% died before transplantation. Four patients needed RV assist due to right ventricular failure. Haemorrhage was an issue. Six patients (10%) suffered a cerebrovascular thromboembolic lesion. 15% developed driveline infection. 45% of the MCS patients were discharged home while on pump treatment. Massive blood transfusion was a predictor for mortality and morbidity, p<0.001.
In Paper II the second generation long‐term MCS, the continuous axial flow pump HM‐IITM, was prospectively evaluated for mortality and morbidity. Eleven patients, from 2005 until 2008, were consecutively included at our institution. One patient received the pump for DT. The median pump time was 155 days. Survival to transplantation was 81.8%. Ten patients could be discharged home before transplantation after a median time of 65 days.
Paper III investigated the Swedish experience and outcome of short‐term axial flow MCS, the ImpellaTM, in patients with AHF. Fifty patients were collected between 2003 and 2007 and divided into two groups: 1. Surgical group (n=33) with cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery; and 2. Non‐surgical group (n=17), patients with AHF due to acute coronary syndromes with cardiogenic shock (53%) and myocarditis (29%). The 1‐year survival was 36% and 70%, respectively. 52% were reoperated because of bleeding. Predictors for survival at 30 days were preoperatively placed IABP (p=0.01), postoperatively cardiac output at 12 hours and Cardiac Power Output at 6 and 12 hours.
In Paper IV we evaluated the use and long term outcome of ventricular constraint CorCapTM CSD. Since 2003, 26 consecutive patients with chronic progressive heart failure were operated with CSD via sternotomy (n=25) or left mini‐thoracotomy (n=1). Seven patients were operated with CorCapTM only. Nineteen patients had concomitant cardiac surgery. There were three early and three late deaths. The remaining cohort (n=18) was investigated in a cross‐sectional study regarding QoL with SF‐36. There was no difference in QoL measured with SF‐36 after a mean 3‐years follow up period, when compared to an age‐ and sex‐matched control group from the general population. The one‐year survival was 86%, and after three years 76%. Echocardiographic dimensions had improved significantly after three years.
Conclusion: In our unit, a non‐transplanting medium‐sized cardiothoracic department, short‐ and long‐term MCS (ImpellaTM resp. HMTM) in patients with acute or chronic HF have been used with good results. The use of ventricular constraint early in the course of the disease is a good adjunct to other treatment options in progressive chronic HF patients.
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 68 p.
2010-06-12, Elsa Brändströmsalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Ivert, Torbjörn, Dr.