Time and energy resolved ion mass spectroscopy studies of the ion flux during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of Cr in Ar and Ar/N-2 atmospheres
2010 (English)In: VACUUM, ISSN 0042-207X, Vol. 84, no 9, 1159-1170 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Mass spectroscopy was used to analyze the energy and composition of the ion flux during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/HPPMS) of a Cr target in an industrial deposition system. The ion energy distribution functions were recorded in the time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar+, Ar2+, Cr+, Cr2+, N-2(+) and N+ ions. In the metallic mode the dependence on pulse energy (equivalent of peak target current) was studied. In the case of reactive sputtering in an Ar/N-2 atmosphere, variations in ion flux composition were investigated for varying N-2-to-Ar flow ratio at constant pressure and HIPIMS power settings. The number of doubly charged Cr ions is found to increase linearly with increasing pulse energy. An intense flux of energetic N+ ions was observed during deposition in the reactive mode. The time evolution of ion flux composition is analyzed in detail and related to the film growth process. The ionization of working gas mixture is hampered during the most energetic phase of discharge by a high flux of sputter-ejected species entering the plasma, causing both gas rarefaction and quenching of the electron energy distribution function. It is suggested that the properties (composition and energy) of the ion flux incident on the substrate can be intentionally adjusted not only by varying the pulse energy (discharge peak current), but also by taking advantage of the observed time variations in the composition of ion flux.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. , 2010. Vol. 84, no 9, 1159-1170 p.
High power pulsed magnetron sputtering, HPPMS, High power impulse magnetron sputtering, HIPIMS, Ion mass spectroscopy, Ion energy distribution, Plasma diagnostics, Ion flux
National CategoryEngineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56516DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2010.01.055ISI: 000277356200015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-56516DiVA: diva2:320077
Grzegorz Greczynski and Lars Hultman, Time and energy resolved ion mass spectroscopy studies of the ion flux during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of Cr in Ar and Ar/N2 atmospheres, 2010, VACUUM, (84), 9, 1159-1170.
Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.