Alternative splicing and its regulation under normal and abnormal conditions
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
During the maturation of pre-mRNA introns are removed and exons are spliced together, to form a primary transcript, a reaction that is catalyzed by the spliceosome. Alternative splicing is a complex reaction that mainly utilizes one of four mechanisms; exon skipping, 5’ splice site choice, 3’ splice site choice and intron retention. To achieve accurate splicing four sequence elements are essential, two of which are located in the splice sites themselves; 5’ splice sites and 3’ splice sites, but also the polypyrimidine tract and the branch point sequence. Alternative splicing can be regulated by histone or chromatin modulations, siRNA, transcription efficiency and various proteins, many of which belong to either the SR protein family or the hnRNP family of proteins. SR proteins usually promote exon inclusion, while hnRNP proteins usually promote exon skipping. There are also regulatory elements that are called exonic splicing enhancers or silencers depending on if they promote or inhibit the inclusion of the exon they reside in. These elements also exist in introns and are then called intronic splicing enhancers or silencers. The enhancer elements are most commonly targeted by SR proteins and the silencer elements are usually targeted by hnRNP proteins. This paper will mainly focus on the regulation of alternative splicing and the role of alternative splicing under abnormal conditions, such as when mutations cause disease.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , 24 p.
Alternative splicing, ESE, ESS, hnRNP proteins, ISE, ISS, Regulation, Spliceosome, SR proteins
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56899ISRN: LITH-IFM-Ex--10/2350--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-56899DiVA: diva2:322875
, Linköpings universitet, Linköping (English)
UppsokLife Earth Science
Anders, Hargeby, Lektor