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Weaknesses of Authentication in Quantum Cryptography and Strongly Universal Hash Functions
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Authentication is an indispensable part of Quantum Cryptography, which is an unconditionally secure key distribution technique based on the laws of nature. Without proper authentication, Quantum Cryptography is vulnerable to “man-in-the-middle” attacks. Therefore, to guarantee unconditional security of any Quantum Cryptographic protocols, the authentication used must also be unconditionally secure. The standard in Quantum Cryptography is to use theWegman-Carter authentication, which is unconditionally secure and is based on the idea of universal hashing.

In this thesis, we first investigate properties of a Strongly Universal hash function family to facilitate understanding the properties of (classical) authentication used in Quantum Cryptography. Then, we study vulnerabilities of a recently proposed authentication protocol intended to rule out a "man-in-the-middle" attack on Quantum Cryptography. Here, we point out that the proposed authentication primitive is not secure when used in a generic Quantum Cryptographic protocol. Lastly, we estimate the lifetime of authentication using encrypted tags when the encryption key is partially known. Under simplifying assumptions, we derive that the lifetime is linearly dependent on the length of the authentication key. Experimental results that support the theoretical results are also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1447
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57290ISBN: 978-91-7393-354-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-57290DiVA: diva2:324702
Supervisors
Projects
ICG QC
Available from: 2010-06-16 Created: 2010-06-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Special Properties of Strongly Universal2 Hash Functions Important in Quantum Cryptography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Properties of Strongly Universal2 Hash Functions Important in Quantum Cryptography
2009 (English)In: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, Foundations of Probability and Physics—5, Växjö, augusti 2008, New York: American Institute of Physics , 2009, Vol. 1101, 289-293 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Secure message authentication is an important part of Quantum Key Distribution. In this paper we analyze special properties of a Strongly Universal2 hash function family, an understanding of which is important in the security analysis of the authentication used in Quantum Cryptography. We answer the following question: How much of Alices message does Eve need to influence so that the message along with its tag will give her enough information to create the correct tag for her message?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: American Institute of Physics, 2009
Keyword
Quantum cryptography, Quantum theory, Probability
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18738 (URN)10.1063/1.3109951 (DOI)
Conference
Foundations of Probability and Physics—5, Växjö, augusti 2008
Projects
ICG QC
Available from: 2009-06-03 Created: 2009-06-03 Last updated: 2016-08-31
2. Vulnerability of "A Novel Protocol-Authentication Algorithm Ruling out a Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Quantum Cryptography"
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerability of "A Novel Protocol-Authentication Algorithm Ruling out a Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Quantum Cryptography"
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Quantum Information, ISSN 0219-7499, Vol. 7, no 5, 1047-1052 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we review and comment on "A novel protocol-authentication algorithm ruling out a man-in-the-middle attack in quantum cryptography" [M. Peev et al., Int. J. Quant. Inf. 3 (2005) 225]. In particular, we point out that the proposed primitive is not secure when used in a generic protocol, and needs additional authenticating properties of the surrounding quantum-cryptographic protocol.

Keyword
Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, authentication
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20405 (URN)10.1142/S0219749909005754 (DOI)
Projects
ICG QC
Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-07 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
3. Lifetime of Authentication Using Encrypted Tags When the Encryption Key is Partially Known
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime of Authentication Using Encrypted Tags When the Encryption Key is Partially Known
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quantum cryptography is an unconditionally secure key growing technique provided that an unconditionally secure authentication protocol is combined with it. This paper is about the study of the lifetime of a message authentication scheme, where a message to be authenticated is first hashed by a secret–but fixed–Strongly Universal hash function then the output is encrypted with a one-time-pad key to generate a tag for the message. If the onetime-pad is completely secret, then the lifetime is exponential in the tag length. If, however, the one-time-pad key is partially known in each authentication round, as is the case in practical quantum key distribution protocols, then the picture is different; because the adversary’s partial knowledge of the one-time-pad key in each authentication round contributes to his/her ability to identify the secret hash function. We estimate the lifetime of this type of authentication. Here the parameters are the length of the key identifying the secret hash function and the amount of knowledge that Eve has on the one-time-pad. A theoretical estimate is presented, along with experimental results that support it.

Keyword
Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, authentication, strongly universal hash functions, lifetime
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57289 (URN)
Projects
ICG QC
Available from: 2010-06-16 Created: 2010-06-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31

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Abidin, Aysajan

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