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Human Antibody Responses to Bovine (Newbury-2) Norovirus (GIII.2) and Association to Histo-Blood Group Antigens
Sahlgrensha University Hospital.
University of London Royal Veterinary College.
University of London Royal Veterinary College.
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2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, ISSN 0146-6615, Vol. 82, no 7, 1241-1246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Serum antibodies to bovine norovirus have been found recently in about 22% of humans. Whether this prevalence reflects limited virulence properties of the virus or that inherited host factors provide protection against bovine norovirus infection in humans remains to be established. To investigate whether histo-blood group antigens correlate with the presence of bovine norovirus (GIII.2) antibody, plasma (n = 105) from Swedish blood donors, genotyped and phenotyped for secretor, Lewis and ABO, were tested and compared for the frequency of IgG antibody and antibody titer to Bo/Newbury2/76/UK. In total, 26.7% (28/105) of Swedish blood donors were antibody-positive. Two non-secretors (2/21, 9.5%) were antibody-positive compared with 26/84 (31%) secretors (P=0.047). While no statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of antibodies to bovine norovirus and different ABO blood groups, individuals with blood type B presented the highest frequency of antibodies (37.5%) compared with 0-30% among other blood groups. Individuals with Le(a-b+) had not only higher frequency of antibodies (31.3%) compared with Le(a+b-) (11%) (P=0.068) but also higher antibody titer (P=0.085) although this was not significant statistically. No detectable cross-reaction between bovine GIII.2 and human GII.3 NoV VLP was found with human and animal sera. The results of this study suggest that bovine norovirus infections occur in Sweden and that secretor status but not ABO blood groups is a possible risk factor for infection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd , 2010. Vol. 82, no 7, 1241-1246 p.
Keyword [en]
secretor status, blood groups, bovine norovirus, histo-blood group antigens, fucosyltransferase
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57400DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21776ISI: 000278173400021OAI: diva2:325541
Available from: 2010-06-18 Created: 2010-06-18 Last updated: 2011-06-01
In thesis
1. The Norovirus Puzzle: Characterization of human and bovine norovirus susceptibility patterns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Norovirus Puzzle: Characterization of human and bovine norovirus susceptibility patterns
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Winter vomiting disease is caused by norovirus (NoV) and affects millions of people every year resulting in 200.000 deaths among children in developing countries. It was observed early that not all individuals exposed to the norovirus became ill. The reason for this is now recognized to be dependent upon the secretor status of an individual. The secretor status determines the ability of an individual to express histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) on mucosa and in saliva. A non-secretor is unable to express HBGAs due to a mutation in a gene called FUT2. In this thesis, I have investigated the antibody prevalence and titer in humans in Sweden and Nicaragua to the most common GII NoV and the correlation to secretor status, Lewis status and ABO. I found that secretors had significantly higher antibody prevalence and titer to GII NoV than non-secretors suggesting that non-secretors are less prone to be infected by the GII NoV. In Nicaragua, I also found several different NoV strains circulating at the same time. The NoVs have been circulating and evolving in the human population for some time and the same individuals seems to be infected over and over again with the same virus. This suggests that there is no long-term immunity present but possibly short-term immunity, which would make it very difficult to produce a vaccine against NoV. However, recent studies have shown the possibility of using virus like particles as a vaccine candidate and have demonstrated long-term immunity.

The bovine NoV (boNoV) cause gastroenteritis in cattle and are closely related to the human NoV. The possibility of zoonotic transfer to humans is currently being investigated. I found that 26% of Swedish blood donors have antibodies to the boNoV suggesting that they have been exposed to the virus. The human NoV has been observed to be able to infect and cause disease in cattle, could the boNoV do the same in humans? To date, no boNoV strain has been found in humans. The proposed receptor structure for boNoV is the αGal epitope, which is present in many mammals like cow, pig, horse, sheep and rabbit but not in humans. This indicates that humans are not at risk for boNoV infection because we lack the proper receptor structure. However, recombinations between different NoV strains have been demonstrated and the possibility of more than one receptor being present has been suggested. I found that aa position 365-379 on the boNoV capsid seems to be important for binding to erythrocytes. In this thesis, I hope to add some new pieces to the Norovirus Puzzle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 72 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1244
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68386 (URN)978-91-7393-181-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-20, Berzelius salen, ing. 65, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2011-06-01 Created: 2011-05-23 Last updated: 2011-06-01Bibliographically approved

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Svensson, Lennart
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Molecular Virology Faculty of Health Sciences
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