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Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Swedish Foundry Association.
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, 672-677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 35, no 1, 672-677 p.
Keyword [en]
Barriers, Drivers, Industrial energy efficiency
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12511DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12511DiVA: diva2:327
Note
Original publication: Patrik Rohdin, Patrik Thollander, Petter Solding, Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry, 2006, Energy Policy, (35), 1, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy efficiency and ventilation in Swedish industries barriers, simulation and control strategy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency and ventilation in Swedish industries barriers, simulation and control strategy
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The energy issue is presently in focus worldwide. This is not only due to increasing environmental concern regarding energy related emissions, but also due to the trend of increasing energy prices. Energy usage in the industrial sector in Sweden today represents about one third of the national energy use. A substantial part of that is related to support processes such as heating, ventilation and cooling systems. These systems are important as they are related both to energy cost and indoor climate management as well as to the health of the occupants.

The purpose of this thesis is to reach a more comprehensive view on industrial energy efficiency and indoor environment issues related to industrial ventilation. This has been studied in three themes where the first part addresses barriers to energy efficiency in Swedish industries, the second theme discuss simulation as decision support, and the third studies the variable air volume system in industrial facilities.

In the first theme three different studies were made: the first studies non-energy intensive companies in Oskarshamn in Sweden, the second studies the energy intensive foundry industry and the third study was part of an evaluation of a large energy efficiency program called Project Highland. These studies had several findings in common, such as the importance of a strategic view on the energy issue and the presence of a person with real ambition with power over investment decisions related to energy issues at the company. The studies also show that several information related barriers are important for decision makers at the studied companies. This shows that information related barriers are one reason in why energy efficient equipment is not implemented.

In the second theme the use of simulation in the form of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Building Energy Simulation (BES) are used as decision support for industrial ventilation related studies at two different industries, one foundry is investigated and one dairy. BES has mainly been used to simulate energy and power related parameters while CFD was used to give a detailed description of the indoor and product environment. Together these methods can be used to better evaluate the energy, indoor and product environment and thus enable the implementation of more efficient heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems.

In the third theme the use of Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems was evaluated, and was found to be an efficient way to reduce energy use at the studied sites. At the studied foundry the VAV system is predicted to reduce space heating and electricity use by fans by about 30%, and in the dairy case by about 60% for space heating and 20% for electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 95 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1223
Keyword
Industrial energy efficiency, Industrial ventilation, Barriers, Driving forces. CFD
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15531 (URN)978-91-7393-767-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-11-21, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-12Bibliographically approved
2. Towards Increased Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: Barriers, Driving Forces & Policies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Increased Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: Barriers, Driving Forces & Policies
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. A higheruse of electricity than their European competitors, together with increased energy costs due to increasing energy prices in Swedish industry have negative impacts on results and competitiveness. Of great importance are thus different means which promote energy efficiency such as industrial energy policy instruments. However, cost-effective energy efficiency measuresare not always undertaken. In order to formulate and adopt accurate industrial energy end-use polices, it is thus of importanceto identify the barriers that inhibit the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. It is also of importance to identify the factors which promote the implementation. The aim of this thesis is to analyze industrial energy systems andmore specifically study factors that promote or inhibit energy end-use efficiency in Swedish industrial companies.

Results from this thesis show that the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures is a major means for both energy-intensive and non-energy-intensive Swedish companies to overcome the threat of rising energy prices, for example for electricity. While energy efficiency measures in the non-energy-intensive industry are related mainly to support processes, measures in the studied energy-intensive Swedish foundry industry are related to both support and production processes.

In the various case studies of barriers and driving forces, the most significant barriers to energy efficiency - with largevariations for some of the barriers among the studied cases - were found to be: technical risk such as risk of productiondisruptions; lack of time or other priorities; lack of access to capital; cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience; other priorities for capital investments; technology considered inappropriate at the site; difficulty/cost of obtaininginformation about the energy use of purchased equipment; and lack of budget funding. The largest driving forces, apart fromcost reductions resulting from lowered energy use, were found to be the existence of a long-term energy strategy and peoplewith real ambition. These driving forces did not, unlike the results of barriers to energy efficiency, vary widely across thestudied sectors.

Investment decision support such as optimization has shown to add more information for larger capital-intensive investmentsin energy-intensive industrial SMEs. The thesis also showed that energy audits are an effective means, in terms of publicmoney spent per kWh saved, of providing the industry with information on potential energy efficiency measures.

Based on the results presented in this thesis, a policy approach towards non-energy-intensive companies and industrial SMEsshould primarily include providing energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

Abstract [sv]

Industriell energieffektivisering är ett av de viktigaste sätten att reducera hotet om en globaluppvärmning. En högre relativ elanvändning, i jämförelse med europeiska konkurrenter, tillsammans med stigande energikostnader beroende av stigande energipriser för den svenskaindustrin, riskerar leda till försämrad lönsamhet och försämrad konkurrenskraft. Det är såledesav stor vikt att främja energieffektivisering, exempelvis genom olika typer av styrmedel. Lönsamma energieffektiviseringsåtgärder genomförs emellertid inte alltid, till följd av olikahinder för energieffektivisering. För att kunna formulera precisa styrmedel är det därför avstor vikt att dessa hinder som förhindrar implementering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder,identifieras. Det är också av stor vikt att identifiera drivkrafterna. Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera industriella energisystem och mera specifikt studera faktorer somfrämjar och förhindrar effektiv slutanvändning av energi i svensk industri.

Resultaten visar att hotet om stigande energikostnader, exempelvis beträffande elektricitet,både för icke energiintensiv och för energiintensiv svensk tillverkningsindustri, kan reduceraskraftigt om energieffektiv teknik implementeras. Medan åtgärder i icke energiintensiv industrifrämst är relaterade till stödprocesser så visar sig åtgärderna i den studerade svenska energiintensiva gjuteriindustrin vara relaterade till både stöd- och produktionsprocesser.

I fallstudierna beträffande hinder och drivkrafter visade sig de största hindren vara - med storavariationer mellan fallen - tekniska risker såsom risk för produktionsstörningar och avbrott; brist på tid/andra prioriteringar; brist på kapital; kostnader för produktionsstörningar; ickeenergirelaterade investeringar prioriteras högre; tekniken passar ej för företaget;svårigheter/kostnader att erhålla korrekt information beträffande energianvändningen av deninköpta utrustningen; och brist på budgetmedel. De största drivkrafterna var, utöver kostnadsminskningar till följd av minskad energianvändning, förekomsten av en långsiktigenergistrategi och en eldsjäl. Drivkrafterna varierade inte, till skillnad mot hindren, så mycketmellan de olika undersökta fallen.

Beslutsstöd såsom exempelvis optimering har visat sig kunna ge ökad information vid störremer kapitalintensiva investeringar i energiintensiva små- och medelstora företag. Vidare har energianalyser visat sig vara ett effektivt sätt, i termer av besparad kWh per statligt insattkrona, att ge industrin information beträffande möjliga energieffektiviserande åtgärder.

Resultat från avhandlingen indikerar att ett stöd gentemot icke energiintensiva och små och medelstora företag framförallt bör inkludera statligt finansierade energianalyser med denlokala energirådgivaren som en deltagande aktör.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 83 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1214
Keyword
Industrial energy efficiency, barriers, driving forces, investment decision support, energy policies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14907 (URN)978-91-7393-793-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-28, ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved

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