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Validation of software for the calculation of aerodynamic coefficients: with a focus on the software package Tornado
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
2010 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Several programs exist today for calculating aerodynamic coefficients that with some simplifications provide fast approximations of the values for a real aircraft.

Four different programs were analyzed for this report: Tornado, AVL, PANAIR and a handbook-type preliminary method. In addition, ANSYS CFX was used for airfoil validation. For calculation of the zero lift drag, an approximation was computed in order to calculate the remaining values that were not calculated by the software: drag contribution for fuselages, nacelles and some horizontal stabilizers and fins.

Different types of aircraft were selected for trial: two commercial aircraft (Boeing 747-100 and 777-300), a TF-8A research airplane (with area rule application: some additions were made to the fuselage to prevent large variations in the cross-section when the contribution of the wing is  added), a Lockheed Constellation C-69 u sed as a military cargo airplane, a Boeing Stratocruiser used by the USAF with two configurations (basic and bomber), and an Aero Commander 680 Super, similar to a Cessna 162. Two airfoils (NACA2412, 0012) were also analyzed, to investigate the limitations of software designed for three-dimensional calculations.

The accuracy of the results showed that the validity of the software depends on the planform of the aircraft, as well as the simulation parameters Mach number and Reynolds number. The shape of the wing caused some of the methods to have serious difficulties in converging to valid results, or increased the simulation time beyond acceptable limits.

Abstract [sv]

Numera finns det olika program för beräkning av de aerodynamiska koefficienterna från en modell med vissa förenklingar som ger en snabb approximation av värdena för ett verkligt flygplan.

Fyra olika program har analyserats för denna rapport: Tornado, AVL, PANAIR och en handbok baserad preliminär metod. Dessutom användes ANSYS CFX för validering av vingprofiler . Vid beräkningen av noll-lyft motståndet, en approximation användes för de återstående delarna som inte beräknas av de andra metoderna: motståndsbidraget från flygkroppar, gondoler och vissa horisontella stabilisatorer och fenor.

Olika flygplaner har testats: två trafikflygplan (Boeing 747-100 och 777-300), ett TF-8A forskningsflygplan (med area regel användning: några tillägg gjordes på flygkroppen för att tvärsnitten inte har stora variationer när bidraget från vingen läggas), ett Lockheed Constellation C-69, ett Boeing Stratocruiser som används av USAF i två konfigurationer (den vanliga och bombplan), och ett Aero Commander 680 Super, som liknar ett Cessna 162. Två vingprofiler (NACA 2412, 0012) analyserades också, för att kontrollera begränsningarna av programmen avsedd för tredimensionella beräkningar. Riktigheten av resultaten visade att giltigheten av programmen beror på formen av flygplanernas vingar, samt de simulationernas parametrar: Mach nummer och Reynolds nummer. Formen på vingen orsakade några av de metoderna att ha stora svårigheter med konvergensen till giltiga resultat, eller ökat simulering tid över acceptabla gränser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , 55 p.
Keyword [en]
Aerodynamic coefficients
Keyword [sv]
Aerodynamiska koefficienter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57972ISRN: LIU-IEI-TEK-A--10/00889--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-57972DiVA: diva2:329418
Presentation
2010-06-09, MASS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 15:15
Uppsok
Technology
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-08-24 Created: 2010-07-11 Last updated: 2011-03-22Bibliographically approved

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