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Deposition of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods at 50 degrees C on Metal, Semiconducting Polymer, and Copper Oxides Substrates and Their Structural and Optical Properties
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2010 (English)In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 7, 3250-3256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A two-step chemical bath deposition was utilized to synthesize ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on metals, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(strenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) coated flexible plastic foils, and copper oxides coated glass substrates. The whole synthesis procedure was carried out at a low temperature of 50 degrees C, without any other substrate treatments. The low growth temperature showed improved influence on both the ZNRAs structural and optical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed well-aligned ZNRAs with large aspect ratios, and X-ray diffraction (X RI)) analysis indicated that single crystalline ZNRAs were achieved with high c-axial orientation tendency. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements demonstrated excellent optical properties of the as-grown ZNRAs with very low defect concentration contrary to what was believed to be achieved when lowering the growth temperature. The impact of the low deposition temperature on the ZNRAs structure is discussed in connection to the thermodynamics constraints, while the temperature effect on the defects formation and density in the as-deposited ZNRAs is elaborated and compared with recent theoretical calculations that appeared in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Chemical Society , 2010. Vol. 10, no 7, 3250-3256 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58270DOI: 10.1021/cg100390xISI: 000279422700059OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-58270DiVA: diva2:337945
Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
In thesis
1. ZnO and CuO Nanostructures: Low Temperature Growth, Characterization, their Optoelectronic and Sensing Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZnO and CuO Nanostructures: Low Temperature Growth, Characterization, their Optoelectronic and Sensing Applications
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One dimensional (1-D), zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper (II) oxide (CuO), nanostructures have great potential for applications in the fields of optoelectronic and sensor devices. Research on nanostructures is a fascinating field that has evolved during the last few years especially after the utilization of the hydrothermal growth method. Using this method variety of nanostructures can be grown from solutions, it is a cheap, easy, and environment friendly approach. These nanostructures can be synthesized on various conventional and nonconventional substrates such as silicon, plastic, fabrics and paper etc.

The primary purpose of the work presented in this thesis is to realize controllable growth of ZnO, CuO and nanohybrid ZnO/CuO nanostructures and to process and develop white light emitting diodes and sensor devices from the corresponding nanostructures.

The first part of the thesis deals with ZnO nanostructures grown under different hydrothermal conditions in order to gain a better understanding of the growth. Possible parameters affecting the growth such as the pH, the growth temperature, the growth time, and the precursors  concentration which can alter the morphology of the nanostructures were investigated (paper 1). Utilizing the advantage of the low temperature for growth we synthesized ZnO nanostructures on different substrates, specifically on flexible substrates, which are likely to be integrated with flexible organic substrates for future foldable and disposable electronics (paper 2, 3).

In the second part of the thesis, using the results and findings from the growth of ZnO nanostructures, it was possible to successfully implement ZnO nanostructures for white light emitting diodes (LEDs) on different flexible substrates (paper 4, 5).

In paper 4 we realized a ZnO/polymer LED grown on a paper substrate. In paper 5 we extended the idea to print the ZnO nanorods/polymer hybrid LEDs with potential application to large area flexible displays.

In the last part of the thesis, CuO and nanohybrid ZnO/CuO nanostructures were utilized to fabricate Ag+ detection and humidity sensors. In paper 6 we reported Ag+ selective electrochemical sensor based on the use of functionalized CuO nanopetals. To combine the advantages of both oxides nanostructures and to improve the performance we fabricated a pn-heterojuction using intrinsic n-ZnO nanorods and p-CuO nanostructures which were then utilized as an efficient humidity sensor (paper 7).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 66 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1441
Keyword
Zinc oxide, Copper (II) oxide, Nanostructures, Hydrothermal growth, Light emitting diodes.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76677 (URN)978-91-7519-912-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-05-11, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
2. Synthesis of ZnO, CuO and their Composite Nanostructures for Optoelectronics, Sensing and Catalytic Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of ZnO, CuO and their Composite Nanostructures for Optoelectronics, Sensing and Catalytic Applications
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on nanomaterials has become increasingly popular because of their unique physical, chemical, optical and catalytic properties compared to their bulk counterparts. Therefore, many efforts have been made to synthesize multidimensional nanostructures for new and efficient nanodevices. Among those materials, zinc oxide (ZnO), has gained substantial attention owing to many outstanding properties. ZnO besides its wide bandgap of 3.34 eV exhibits a relatively large exciton binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature which is attractive for optoelectronic applications. Likewise, cupric oxide (CuO), having a narrow band gap of 1.2 eV and a variety of chemo-physical properties that are attractive in many fields. Moreover, composite nanostructures of these two oxides (CuO/ZnO) may pave the way for various new applications.

This thesis can be divided into three parts concerning the synthesis, characterization and applications of ZnO, CuO and their composite nanostructures.

In the first part the synthesis, characterization and the fabrication of ZnO nanorods based hybrid light emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. The low temperature chemical growth method was used to synthesize ZnO nanorods on different substrates, specifically on flexible non-crystalline substrates. Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO nanorods combined with p-type polymers were fabricated at low temperature to examine the advantage of both materials. A single and blended light emissive polymers layer was studied for controlling the quality of the emitted white light.

The second part deals with the synthesis of CuO nanostructures (NSs) which were then used to fabricate pH sensors and exploit these NSs as a catalyst for degradation of organic dyes. The fabricated pH sensor exhibited a linear response and good potential stability. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of petals and flowers like CuO NSs in the degradation of organic dyes were studied. The results showed that the catalytic reactivity of the CuO is strongly depending on its shape.

In the third part, an attempt to combine the advantages of both ZnO and CuO NSs was performed by developing a two-step chemical growth method to synthesize the composite NSs. The synthesized CuO/ZnO composite NSs revealed an extended light absorption and enhanced defect related visible emission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 59 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1467
Keyword
ZnO, CuO, Nanostructures, Low temperature growth, Light emitting diodes, pH sensors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81120 (URN)978-91-7519-818-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-07 Created: 2012-09-07 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
3. Lighting and Sensing Applications of Nanostructured ZnO, CuO and Their Composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lighting and Sensing Applications of Nanostructured ZnO, CuO and Their Composites
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

Low dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO), cupric oxide (CuO), and their composite nanostructures possess remarkable physical and chemical properties. Fundamental understanding and manipulation of these unique properties are crucial for all potential applications. Integration of nanostructured ZnO and CuO and their hybrid composites may play a significant role in the existing technology while paving the way for new exciting areas. Solution based low temperature synthesis of ZnO and CuO nanostructures have attracted extensive research efforts during the last decade. These efforts resulted in a plenteous number of nanostructures ranging from quantum dots into very complex three dimensional nanomaterials. Among the various low temperature synthesis methods the hydrothermal technique became one of the most popular approaches. The use of hydrothermal approach enabled the synthesis of diversity of nanomaterials on conventional and nonconventional substrates such as metals, glass, plastic and paper etc.

The primary objectives of this thesis are to study and understand the characteristics of nanostructured ZnO, CuO, and their hybrid composites synthesized at low temperature. Likewise, the hybrid composites were successfully utilized to fabricate light emitting diodes and sensors. This thesis is organized into three major parts. In the beginning the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured ZnO, CuO, and their composite nanostructures are elaborated. Efforts have been made to understand the selective assembly of hierarchical CuO nanostructures on ZnO nanorods and to correlate it to the observed unique properties of the CuO/ZnO composite nanostructures. In the second part of the thesis fabrication, characterization, and device application of ZnO/p-polymer hybrid light emitting diode (HyLEDs) on flexible substrates are presented. In particular single and blended p-type light emissive polymers were controllably developed for potential greener and cheaper white light emitters. It was found that the HyLEDs exhibited rectifying diode characteristics together with white light emission covering the entire visible range. In the third part, pH and relative humidity sensing applications of CuO nanoflowers, and CuO/ZnO nanocorals, respectively, are described. A pH sensor based on CuO nanoflowers demonstrated good sensitivity and reproducibility over a wide range of pH. By taking the advantages of the selective growth of CuO nanostructures on ZnO nanorods and their naturally formed p-n heterojunction the realization of high sensitivity humidity sensor was achieved. The humidity sensor fabricated from the CuO/ZnO nanocorals displayed the highest sensitivity factor reported so far for its constituent materials; along with reasonably fast dynamic responses. A brief outlook into future challenges and opportunities are also presented in the last part of the thesis. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 79 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1484
Keyword
ZnO, CuO, Nanostructures, Composites, ZnO/polymer LEDs, humidity sensor, p-n heterojunction
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85111 (URN)978-91-7519-755-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-06, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Nanophotonics
Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-05 Last updated: 2017-02-23Bibliographically approved

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Zaman, SiamaAmin, GulNour, OmerWillander, Magnus

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